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To investigate how the length affects the resistance of a wire.

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Introduction

Resistance investigation Aim: To investigate how the length affects the resistance of a wire. Introduction: Resistance is a measure of how hard it is to move the electrons through the wire. Resistance occurs when the electrons travelling along the wire collide with the atoms of the wire. These collisions slow down the flow of electrons causing resistance. Resistance is measured in ohms. George Ohm discovered that the emf of a circuit is directly proportional to the current flowing through the circuit. This means that if you triple one, you triple the other. He also discovered that a circuit sometimes resists the flow of electricity. He called this resistance. He then came up with a rule for working out the resistance of a circuit : V/I = R V - Volts I - Current R - Resistance. Each cm of wire has a particular resistance, if you double the length of wire, it is like having two of the shorter wires in series. 20cm resistance - 2.50 ohms 10cm 10cm resistance of each - 1.75 ohms Factors that effect the amount of resistance are: 1.Temperature: If the wire is heated up the atoms in the wire will start to vibrate because of their increase in energy. ...read more.

Middle

Do not carry out the experiment in wet areas, as water is a very good conductor, and thus could be very dangerous. 2) Do not touch the wire when the battery pack is switched on, because the current would heat up the wire. Apparatus : 1) Battery pack 2) Nichrome wire 3) Meter Ruler 4) Crocodile Clips 5) Sellotape 6) Connection Lead 7) Ammeter 8) Voltmeter I set up my experiment as shown above. I started the experiment by sellotaping the Nichrome Wire (over 1 meter long) to the meter ruler. I then connected the battery pack the thee ammeter using a connection lead. The ammeter was then connected to the wire using a connection lead and a crocodile clip. Then I connected this to the voltmeter and back to the battery pack. The teacher checked this for safety. When it was checked a table was written to record the results. The battery pack was switched on next. The resistance was then recorded down for various lengths ranging from 0 - 100cm. After each measurement was taken the battery pack was switched off to ensure the wire didn't heat up. If it had heated up to much the particles in the wire would move faster and create moere resistance, therefore effecting the results. ...read more.

Conclusion

Wire width: I think that if the wire width is increased the resistance will decrease. This is because of the increase in the space for the electrons to travel through. Due to this increased space between the atoms there should be less collisions. 2) Temperature: I think that if the wire is heated up the atoms in the wire will start to vibrate because of their increase in energy. This causes more collisions between the electrons and the atoms as the atoms are moving into the path of the electrons. This increase in collisions means that there will be an increase in resistance. 3) Material: I think that the type of material of the wire will affect the amount of free electrons, which are able to flow through that wire. This is because the number of electrons depends on the amount of electrons in the outer energy shell of the atoms, so if there are more or larger atoms then there must be more electrons available. If the material has a high number of atoms there will be high numbers of electrons causing a lower resistance because of the increase in the number of electrons. Also if the atoms in the material are closely packed then the electrons will have more frequent collisions and the resistance will increase. ...read more.

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