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To investigate how the temperature of a substance affects the rate of a reaction.

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Introduction

Aim: The aim of this experiment is to investigate how the temperature of a substance affects the rate of a reaction. I will also look into how other factors (including my chosen factor) affect the rate of reaction and explain why I think this happens. I will show my findings and thoughts progressively in a way of written explanation, charts and graphs, diagrams and quotes from other sources. Scientific Thought: The rate of reaction is the rate of loss of a reactant or the rate of formation of a product during a chemical reaction. If the reaction takes a short time, this is a fast reaction, an example of this would be an explosion. Similarly, if the reaction takes a long time to occur, this is a slow reaction. Rust would be a good example of this. The speed of a reaction is inversely proportional to the time taken for the reaction to finish. It is measured by dividing 1 by the time taken for the reaction to take place. ...read more.

Middle

Surface area The more surface area a reactant has, then the faster the rate of reaction will occur. This is because the two types of molecule can only bump into each other were the liquid meets the solid face. So the larger the surface area of the solid, the faster the reaction will be. Smaller particles have a larger surface area than large particles even with the same mass of a solid. This is why smaller chunks of potato, for example, would cook faster than large chunks. Pressure This mainly applies to gases. Particles in gases are very far apart. For a reaction to happen, collisions between the particles need to be made. By decreasing the amount of space a number of particles have to move around in (increasing pressure) you increase the number of collisions between the particles. Once a reaction has started it will gather up speed very quickly as heat is produced. Concentration 1/time Concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution The concentration of a substance is measured in molarity. ...read more.

Conclusion

Apparatus * Tripod * Thermometer * Heatproof mat * Bunsen burner * Goggles * Sodium Thiosulphate * Beaker * Paper * Pen (to mark a cross) * Sulphuric acid. Method 1. Set up apparatus 2. Measure out 25ml sodium thiosulphate 3. Heat up to desired temperature 4. Add 5ml Sulphuric acid 5. Record the results. In this experiment I am going to go up in intervals of 5 degrees. This means taking the temperature at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 degrees Celsius. This amount of readings will ensure we get a detailed graph making it easier to spot the anomalous results and find patterns. Fair test To make sure I get accurate and real results I have to ensure I do a fair test. To do a fair test I must keep everything constant excluding the factor I am investigation (i.e heat). This includes: * Concentration * Amounts of solute and solvent * Same stop watch * Same cross on the paper The only thing I will change very carefully is the temperature levels. Results Temperature ( oc) Time (seconds) 30 36 40 17 50 11 60 7 70 4.7 80 3.03 ...read more.

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