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To investigate the different factors affecting the rates of reaction. The rate of reaction is the rate of loss of a reactant or the rate of formation of a product during a chemical reaction.

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Introduction

Aim: To investigate the different factors affecting the rates of reaction. The rate of reaction is the rate of loss of a reactant or the rate of formation of a product during a chemical reaction. There are five main factors, which determine the rate of chemical reactions taking place. These are: * Temperatures; when increasing the temperature of a reaction or heating the reactants, particles take in more energy causing them to move faster and collide more often. Because the collisions have more energy they are more likely to be successful in breaking and reforming bonds. Therefore the rate of the reaction will increase * Concentration (of solution); The more concentrated the reactant, the more particles are present and the greater the chance of a successful collision and ultimately increasing the rate of reaction * Pressure (in gases); as pressure increase the particles in the reactants collide more causing the particles to gain more kinetic energy and therefore increasing the rate of a reaction * Surface area of (solid particles/reactants); If the solid has a large surface area then there are more opportunities for collisions to occur between the reactants because there are more opportunities for collisions to occur. * Catalysts; In the presence of a catalyst, less energy is needed by a collision in order to be successful. ...read more.

Middle

If I link this equation to the collision theory I find that I was left with the ions, which do collide and actually result in a reaction. The sulphur which, is produced is the substance that makes the solution cloudy, sulphur dioxide is the foul smell which is evident in the gases given off The sulphur and the sulphur dioxide were the result of the collision between 2H+ and SO Predictions: I predict that as the concentration of the hydrochloric acid is altered or increased the rate of reaction will increase. This can be justified by relating to the collision theory. When the concentration of one of the reactants is increased, the particles will have more energy and thus move faster. Therefore they will collide more often and with more energy. Particles with more energy are more likely to overcome the activation energy barrier to reaction and thus react successfully. Also, as the concentration of HCl is increased the time taken for the solution to be opaque will decrease. This is due to the collision theory. I Ref: In the Chemistry for AQA (separate award) by Ann and Patrick Fullick ISBN: 9780435583910, it states that: "Increasing the concentration increases the frequency of collisions between reacting particles. If a solution is more concentrated it will have more particles of the reactants moving around it. ...read more.

Conclusion

Another fault found whilst conducting the experiment is the fact that an ordinary black marker pen was used. This would mean that as the conical flask was placed each time a new concentration was tested some of the black faded causing the person who was looking through the flask to judge the time unreliably due to errors in the qualitative source. In the real experiment, drawing on the white tile with a permanent black marker would eliminate this error and make the data source more reliable and accurate I can draw a graph to represent the preliminary experiment data. Another factor taken into consideration will be the fact that more data needs to be collected to make the graph more clear, precise and accurate. I will also take an average of this data source to identify any anomalous results (if any). Another form of representing the preliminary experiment data is by bar graphs. Above is a bar graph showing time for taken for solution to be opaque with different concentrations of Hydrochloric acid. At 1M of HCl acid it took the least amount of time for solution to become opaque due to kinetic theory of particles with varying concentrations. The trend suggests that as the concentration of HCl decreased the time taken for solution to become opaque increased. This is because there were less frequent collisions between particles and therefore the rate of reaction was slow thus leading to increase in the time taken for person to see the black cross marked on the white tile. ...read more.

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