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To investigate the effect of a potential pollution source upon the chemical and Biological make up of a fresh water environment.

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Introduction

FRESHWATER DIVERSITY AND POLLUTION INTRODUCTORY ECOLOGY Diversity can be defined as a measure of the number of species and number of individuals in a community. Freshwater diversity can be defined as a measure of the number of species and number of individuals in a freshwater habitat. This implies that the more. Pollution is the addition of substances to the environment that are likely to cause harm to living organisms. AIM: To investigate the effect of a potential pollution source upon the chemical and Biological make up of a fresh water environment. To do this we are going to measure the water quality in Pocklington Beck, which is the site where our investigation is going to be carried out. We will consider two sites in Pocklington for this investigation to base our conclusion. Site 1, will be the Pond located 1.5km NE of Pocklington Beck. While site 2 is the outfall, the place where water from the town site and sewage works flow through. ...read more.

Middle

The pH meter was swirled round and the pH reading recorded. Turbidity was measured by filling both halves of the turbidity tube with water. Then some of the water was tilted off until the black spot at the bottom of the tube was very clear and the reading was recorded in mg/l. We measured the velocity of the water by placing the hydro-prop stream flow meter at half the depth of the water and timed it. The chemicals, Nitrates, phosphates and ammonia were all measured using a direct reading photometer. A different solution was added for measuring the chemicals in the beakers of water along with an indicator to get a colour change. Then the readings were obtained by using a grid. The Biotic sampling was done by a method known as Kick sampling. The shallow white tray was filled with water. The sediments were disturbed for 25seconds while the D-ring net with its mouth facing into the water flow was placed with the flat bottom down into the disturbed region of the water, the organisms were caught and put into the tray for counting and identification, using the species identification sheet. ...read more.

Conclusion

In sewage, NH4 is converted to NO3 by bacterial activities so they are not high. There is also an increase in phosphates. In site 2, turbidity is 100 while it is >5 in site 1. This is because Site 2 has a scrap yard beside it and the stream run through peoples garden. From the Biotic data, the freshwater shrimp was more dominant at site 1. This is because freshwater shrimp has a high metabolic rate i.e. they will detect pollution quickly and incorporate it into their system. Therefore anything detrimental will kill them. From the data, group1, 2,3 and 6 organisms are intolerant to pollution, while group 7,8 and 9 are tolerant to pollution. Organism like the leech and Tubifex worm have a low metabolic rate and so they are able to get rid of pollutants. The Tubifex worm was seen to be more dominant than other species in site 2. This is because they have more haemoglobin, seen by red body, and so can survive in low oxygen conditions. This makes them able to out compete other species. The conductivity at site 2 is higher than that of site 1 because in Site 2 there are lots of suspended 1 ...read more.

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