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To investigate the effect of changing the concentration of acid on the rate of reaction of Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid.

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Introduction

To investigate the effect of changing the concentration of acid on the rate of reaction of Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid PLANNING In this experiment, the factor to be investigated is the concentration. This means that all other factors must stay the same or else this would not be a fair test. I am going to investigate how different acid concentrations affect the rate of the reaction with Magnesium. I will do this by monitoring how long it takes for a certain amount of Hydrogen to be given off. This means that I can measure how much a water level inside an area decreases due to the Hydrogen pushing it out. I have decided that I will wait until the water level reaches 50cm cubed before recording the result. This will measure the speed of the reaction. I chose this number because I should not have to wait too long for the water level to go down, but there is enough time to show how fast it's taking place. Similarly, I could have measured how much Hydrogen is given off in a certain time span. However, I am using the first option as I think it proves how quickly the reaction happens, rather than how much gas is produced. So it relates to the title better. I am going to use five different concentrations of acid and I'll change the concentration by diluting each volume of acid with a certain percentage of water. ...read more.

Middle

For every time it was measured, I found that the length was 5cm, the weight was 0.09 grams and the width measured 0.23mm. Therefore, the time taken for the water to be pushed out of the cylinder until 50cm� was not altered by any of these things. This is a table of all three experiments and a table of repeats. Each time, the water level had to reach the same place. I have written 'time taken' instead of rate of reaction because the whole reaction is not being recorded. It is only timed until the water level reaches a certain point. EXPERIMENT 1 Cm� of acid Cm� of magnesium Time taken (s) Water level (cm�) 50cm� 00 cm� 018.62 secs 50 cm� 40 cm� 10 cm� 041.03 secs 50 cm� 30 cm� 20 cm� 088.78 secs 50 cm� 20 cm� 30 cm� 171.29 secs 50 cm� 10 cm� 40 cm� 840.59 secs 50 cm� 00 cm� 50 cm� Infinity 50 cm� (s) = Seconds In the last result, there is no acid. There is no reaction between water and Magnesium, so a time is not recorded. EXPERIMENT 2 Cm� of acid Cm� of magnesium Time taken (s) Water level (cm�) 50cm� 00 cm� 009.97 secs 50 cm� 40 cm� 10 cm� 016.43 secs 50 cm� 30 cm� 20 cm� 050.06 secs 50 cm� 20 cm� 30 cm� 111.41 secs 50 cm� 10 cm� 40 cm� 327.97 secs 50 cm� 00 cm� 50 cm� Infinity 50 cm� (s) ...read more.

Conclusion

These things could have affected the results I got. I feel that the range of readings that I used was okay. Due to what I found on the graph, I realised that perhaps, using 40cm cubed and 50cm cubed was slightly inappropriate. This is because the graph showed that the difference in their times was not all that much, meaning that by 50cm cubed, the acid particles outnumbered the Magnesium ones, so the remaining particles were ineffective. It would have been better to not do 50cm cubed at all. However, it did help me to realise this. I also noticed that when I chose to time the reaction until the water level reached 50cm cubed, the reactions took slightly too long towards the end. This meant that we could not do another repeat and were slightly rushed. I think my method was suitable and was appropriate in relating to what we were supposed to find out. To make the method more detailed and accurate, it would be better to keep the conical flask the same throughout and perhaps even measure the temperature of the room as well. This is because variation in temperature can change the speed of a reaction as the particles have more energy. To get more evidence, I could widen the concentrations to see if my prediction about higher concentrations was correct and perhaps see how fast the reaction is when having a concentration of below 20%. I could also investigate the same thing by doing a gas syringe experiment, which might be more precise. Another way to monitor rates of reaction is by seeing how the factors of temperature and surface area can alter it. ...read more.

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