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To investigate the effect of changing the concentration on the rate of reaction between Sodium ThioSulphate and Hydrochloric Acid.

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Introduction

Aim: To investigate the effect of changing the concentration on the rate of reaction between Sodium ThioSulphate and Hydrochloric Acid. Hydrochloric + Sodium Sodium + Sulphur + Sulphur + Water Acid ThioSulphate Chloride Dioxide 2HCl(aq) + Na2S203(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + S(s) + SO2(g) + H20(l) Introduction: This investigation is to study the effect that changing the Hydrochloric Acid concentration, has on the Sodium ThioSulphate. In this investigation, the concentration will be measured in molars (M). Concentrations of Hydrochloric Acid ranging from 0.2M to 1.2M will be used to provide a general trend in the results. Scientific Knowledge: Activation Energy: For molecules to react, they must collide with each other. Molecules are in unceasing, high-speed motion, this is likely to happen frequently. However, calculations show that not every collision results in a reaction. Most reactions will not start unless they are supplied with energy. Energy must be added to reactants to loosen the bonds before reaction with the formation of new bonds takes place. This energy 'activates' the molecules and so is called the activation energy. Reacting particles must have had their bonds 'loosened' by taking up energy - the activation energy. ...read more.

Middle

From the collision theories I have gained enough information that the concentration will affect the rate of reaction. Concentration: If the concentration of a solution is increased there are more reactant particles per unit volume. This increases the probability of reactant particles colliding with each other. My final prediction is when you increase the concentration the quicker the reaction will be therefore making the cross disappear more rapidly. Fair Test: In order for my findings to be valid the experiment must be a fair one. I will use the same standard each time for judging when X as disappeared. I will make sure that the measuring cylinders for the Hydrochloric acid and Sodium ThioSulphate will not be mixed up. The amount of Hydrochloric acid and Sodium ThioSulphate will be 10cm3 each time. The temperature will also be the same throughout the experiment hopefully. All of these precautions will make my final results more reliable and keep anomalies at a minimum so therefore making the entire investigation more successful. Apparatus: In my experiment the following apparatus will be used: * 2 measuring cylinders (10cm3) - to measure the amount of Hydrochloric acid and Sodium ThioSulphate. ...read more.

Conclusion

Evaluation: The overall investigation was a success as the method produced sufficient evidence to come to a firm conclusion, as it was suitable for the given task. The experiment went according to my plan despite some minor problems. For example I only obtained three sets of results and then calculated an average. I should have done more tests to provide myself with a better average. I believe there is an human error factor involved in this experiment like when measuring liquids and looking for an end point in the reaction although the reaction I chose was fairly definite end point it was still difficult to tell whether the whole cross had disappeared or not. Instead of using a cross I could of used a light beam and when the light beam goes out that is an end point. An enhanced standard of measuring cylinders also could have been a major improvement. A glass pipette should have been used because they're hand made much more accurate. The equipment used was rinsed with tap water, which contains many impurities, which may have contaminated or changed the concentration of the substances. Distilled water could have been used as it is pure and has no impurities. ...read more.

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