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To investigate the effect of concentration on rate of reaction.

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Introduction

To investigate the effect of concentration on rate of reaction. Ca3(s) + 2HCl(aq) --> 2CaCl2(aq) + H20(l) + CO2(g) AIM: I am going to take 2 grams of marble, all of similar sizes, and place them into different concentrations of hydrochloric acid. I will see what effect the different concentrations of acid has on the rate of reaction. I will measure the mass of the acid and mass of the marble chips. Using a stop watch every 30 seconds I will weigh the mass of the chips. The mass will decrease due to the reaction of the chips and acid to form carbon dioxide gas, the gas will escape from the beaker leaving the mass lower. I will work out the mass lost using the formula "original mass - mass after reaction = mass lost" I will repeat each experiment at least twice and then take an average of the two to make my results more accurate. ...read more.

Middle

I will keep the surface area of chips as constant as possible, by looking at area and length. All the chips were weighed on the same scales to 2g. All my experiments are at room temperature so temperature will not affect any reaction differently to another. I found in my preliminary work that smaller chips with a larger surface are produced a larger range of results. I also discovered that if I took a mass reading every 20 seconds for 3 minutes(180 seconds) I was left with 9 different results leaving me with enough information to compare and contrast different concentration effects. All the equipment used in my preliminary and final experiments were the same throughout. METHOD: I measured 2 grams of similar sized marble chips on 2 decimal place scales. I then measured 40 cm3 of hydrochloric acid from a burette into a conical flask Then I plugged cotton wool into the top of the conical flask and weighed on the scales I had used to weight he chips I then removed the cotton wool and added the 2g of chips plugging the cotton wool back into the top and starting a stop watch. ...read more.

Conclusion

My results were as follows: ANALYSIS: From the graph I can see that my prediction was right and as the concentration increased so did the rate of reaction meaning that there was more reaction therefore more mass loss in the set time. The mass decreases steadily in each experiment although in experiments with higher concentrations of acid the decreasing was steeper but still steady. This was because of the collision theory which I explained in my planning, the graphs also support my prediction which is also found in plan. EVALUATION: Overall I think my experiment went well and I carried it out to the best of my abilities. i decided to use chips of sizes (2-4mm) as these provided a greater surface area which would result in more reaction with the acid and water solution. The amount of chips used (2g) also proved to be adequate to support my prediction and conclusion. The amount of carbon dioxide lost in each experiment increased steadily showing that my experiments was carried out accurately. ...read more.

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