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To investigate the effect of concentration on the rate of a reaction - Magnesium + Hydrochloric Acid ---> Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen.

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Introduction

To investigate the effect of concentration on the rate of a reaction Magnesium + Hydrochloric Acid ---> Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen Mg(s) + 2HCl(l) ---> MgCl2(l) + H2(g) Aim The aim of this investigation is to find out how the concentration of Hydrochloric Acid effects the rate of the reaction. In this case we will measure the rate at which Hydrogen is produced. The concentration of the Hydrochloric Acid will be our variable. Prediction I believe that the higher the concentration, the faster the rate of reaction. From preliminary experiments I have discovered that the higher the concentration of the acid, the more collisions there are. Therefore, the rate of reaction will be larger if we use a high concentration of the acid rather than using a smaller concentration. Procedure Experiment Acid Volume (cm3) Water Volume (cm3) Total Volume (cm3) Concentration (mol/dm3) 1 50 0 50 1m 2 40 10 50 0.8m 3 30 20 50 0.6m 4 20 30 50 0.4m 5 10 40 50 0.2m For the experiment we have chosen specific equipment. The equipment we have chosen was used in our preliminary experiment as was the magnesium. ...read more.

Middle

Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Average of Readings 0 0 0 0 20 3 2 2.5 40 4 3 3.5 60 4 4 4 80 4 4 4 100 5 4 4.5 120 6 6 6 Key Variables There are 4 main variables that will effect our experiment, these variables are: * Volume * Concentration * Surface Area * Temperature These variables are kept under control in our experiment. * Volume is kept at a constant of 50cm�. * Concentration will vary. See table on first page (it will go from 1m to 0.2m). * Surface area of the Magnesium is kept constant by making sure that we prepare the magnesium the same for each experiment (coiling it up) and we will use magnesium ribbon only. * Temperature will be kept roughly the same(room temperature). To improve our experiment we could use a water bath to keep temperature the same. The same amount of heat will be produced in this experiment as our preliminary experiment but there is much less effect as we have used 30cm3 more of the solution. Hotter the atoms, the more they vibrate, they more they collide, this could therefore effect the rate on certain experiments if the temperature is not kept constant. ...read more.

Conclusion

* Sources of error in the procedure could have been due to: 1. Varying length of magnesium (human error) 2. The concentrations were slightly off due to bad measurements with the pipette. 3. The balance is accurate to 0.01g so it is unlikely that this will have caused any noticeable errors. * The sources of error are due to apparatus used and human error. Using more accurate equipment (scales which measure the magnesium to a greater accuracy) and taking more care when preparing the experiment could reduce these anomalies. * By altering our method and using more accurate methods of cutting up the magnesium, and rolling up the magnesium carefully so that the surface area exposed is the same we could have more reliable results. * The data is very trustworthy due to the fact that we took two readings. The likely hood of error decreases as we take more readings. The average of the readings that matched closest was taken to ensure that our results were even more precise. * Our preliminary experiment data and graph also backs up our results. * My prediction "I believe that the higher the concentration, the faster the rate of reaction" was correct and has proven successful. To investigate the effect of concentration on the rate of a reaction Jonathan Middleton, 11B Page 1 5/2/2007 ...read more.

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