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To Investigate The Effect Of Concentration On The Rate Of Reaction Of Magnesium And Hydrochloric Acid.

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Introduction

To Investigate The Effect Of Concentration On The Rate Of Reaction Of Magnesium And Hydrochloric Acid In my experiment I aim to look at the effect that different concentrations of hydrochloric acid have on the rate of reaction. I will carry out a pilot and modify it for my final experiment; I will then evaluate my work. The word and symbol equations for this experiment are: Magnesium + Hydrochloric Acid Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen Mg + 2HCL MgCl + H2 The Collision Theory A chemical reaction will only occur when particles collide, with the right amount of energy, enough energy to break bonds, this minimum amount of energy is called the activation energy. In some reactions the activation energy is low and collisions may occur at room temperature or below. Some reactions have a high activation energy therefore they have to be heated for collisions to happen. When collisions happen in different concentrations of a solution, in our experiment hydrochloric acid, the rate of reaction either increases or decreases. If there is a low concentration in a solution the rate of reaction is slower, but when there is a high concentration in a solution the reaction is much faster because the particles of a reactant are much closer together and collide more frequently, therefore with more force, to break bonds. To break bonds, you need a certain amount of energy; this is called the activation energy. When there is enough energy a faster reaction will occur. ...read more.

Middle

This variable may also affect the surface area. * Same Apparatus - I have to use the same apparatus because otherwise I could pick a different size beaker, which could make it look like there was more acid than if it was in a larger beaker. I will keep this variable by using the same apparatus. Prediction I predict that when concentration increases so will the rate of reaction. This is because in a solution with a stronger molarity there is more surplus energy to break bonds therefore the magnesium will disappear, in less time than if it is in a solution with a weaker concentration, this has less available energy to break bonds. In a more concentrated solution the particles of the solution are closer together because there are more particles in the same amount of solution and are therefore more likely to make successful collisions. However in a solution with a lower molarity the rate of a reaction, or time it takes for the Magnesium to disappear will be slower because the particles in the solution are further apart because there are less of them because there is more water in the acid. I have seen, by using my pilot, that what I have said in my prediction is true. But if I don't I will know that my readings were not accurate enough. I am also going to draw a graph of time taken against concentration: Time Taken (S) ...read more.

Conclusion

* Same Volume Of Acid - I used the same volume all the way through me experiment, to measure the amount I used a measuring cylinder, this was the most accurate piece of equipment that was sensible to use. * Stirring - In my experiment I stirred all of them to get the results in the same way so I have definitely kept this variable the same. * Same Apparatus - I could not use the same apparatus all the time because there was not enough for everyone to have there own, so I could have some error there, although I did clean the it all before I used and I used the same sized beaker for my experiment. The largest area where error did occur in my experiment is that the experiment was exothermic (created heat), other areas where error could have occurred if I did not take, as much time was the apparatus and the length of the ribbon. All of these errors made my test very inaccurate so the results I have collected are almost the best I could have collected in the circumstances. I could reduce the amount of errors by weighing magnesium granules so that I could weigh them more easily. For this experiment I could also use an inverted burette in water: This would improve my investigation because you can take much more accurate Burette readings, but it would mean collecting time amount of gas lost and concentration which is quite hard to organise. ...read more.

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