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To investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

GCSE Triple Science Chemistry: Rate of Reaction Aim: To investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction Define: Chemical Reaction A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances. The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants. Chemical reactions are characterised by a chemical change, and they yield one or more products which are, in general, different from the reactants. Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that strictly involve the motion of electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds, although the general concept of a chemical reaction, in particular the notion of a chemical equation, is applicable to transformations of elementary particles, as well as nuclear reactions. [Source: Wikipedia] Collision Theory - Energy of the Collision Activation Energy Regardless of whether the species are orientated correctly, a reaction will still not fail to occur unless the particles collide with a certain minimum energy called the activation energy of the reaction. Activation energy is the minimum energy required before a reaction can occur. This can be shown on an energy profile for the reaction. For a simple over-all exothermic reaction, the energy profile looks like this: If the particles collide with less energy than the activation energy, nothing significant happens; they bounce apart, Activation energy serves as a barrier to the reaction. Only those collisions which have energies equal to or greater than the activation energy result in a reaction. Any chemical reaction results in the breaking of some bonds (needing energy) and the making of new ones (releasing energy). Clearly, some bonds have to be broken before new ones can be made. Activation energy is involved in breaking some of the original bonds. Where collisions are relatively gentle, there isn't enough energy available to start the bond-breaking process, and so the particles do not react. Due to the key role of activation energy in deciding whether a collision will result in a reaction, it would obviously be useful to know what sort of proportion of the particles present have high enough energies to react when they collide. ...read more.

Middle

of solution * Kettle - to heat the water * Thermometer - to check the temperature * A clamp stand - to hold the gas syringe in place * Gas syringe - to collect any gas produced, and allowing us to record the volume * Water - for varying the temperature of the solution * Stopwatch - to time the reaction * Pen/paper - to record results * Goggles - to protect my eyes in case I spill the HCL Method for real experiment: 1. (a) For over 0�C; using the kettle, heat some water, put it in the beaker and use the thermometer to read when the temperature correct. (b) For 0�C; put ice in the beaker, and let it set so that the conditions are ideal; check with the thermometer that the temperature is at 0�C 2. Put the conical flask in the beaker. 3. Add one spatula full of medium chips in the conical flask. 4. Set up the syringe on the clamp stand with the stopper just above the conical flask; make sure the syringe is at the 0 on the meter. 5. Measure out 30ml of hydrochloric acid. 6. Add it quickly to the conical flask, closing the stopper straight away and starting the stopwatch immediately. 7. Every 10 seconds, record the volume of the gas in the syringe until the syringe becomes full. 8. Repeat the above steps twice more, the 2nd and 3rd readings. 9. Increase the temperature by 10�C accordingly and repeat steps 1-8. 10. Repeat step 9. until you reach a set of results up to 70�C. Diagram Amount of Carbon Dioxide released (ml) Temperature (�C) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 time intervals (s) 1st 2nd 3rd av. 1st 2nd 3rd av. 1st 2nd 3rd av. 1st 2nd 3rd av. 1st 2nd 3rd av. 1st 2nd 3rd av. 1st 2nd 3rd av. ...read more.

Conclusion

However, I do not think that my test was as fair as it could have been. The temperature was not kept constant for every reading. It may have been too low or high by a few oC each time. As the experiment was carried out over three days; the same beaker of HCl was also not used each time, so it may have been more or less concentrated on different days, meaning that it may have reacted too much or too little and rendered the experiment a little inconsistent. The amount of marble of chips might have differed because we used the spatula to take out the calcium carbonate. This means that a different amount of solute was added each time. Additionally, the gas syringe may have affected the fairness of the results, because from time to time it would stall and jump suddenly, which means that some carbon dioxide may have been either escaping or simply because the slide in the syringe was not as mobile as it should have been. Anomalies On the 20oC curve, the points were too low: * As the temperature was too low * Not enough marble chips * Not enough HCl2 If the temperature was too low, the particles would not have had enough kinetic energy to move around and successfully collide with other particles and react. It also meant that not a lot of molecules had energy more than the energy barrier which is why not enough CO2 was produced; therefore the points were too low. If I were to repeat this experiment, or extend it, I would change numerous variables to explore the investigation further. The Mass Loss method could be tried; this is where we measure how much mass is lost from the marble chips and use this to calculate the rate of reaction. To extend this investigation further I could: increase the temperature range, or change the reactants (change CaCO3 and HCl) etc. ?? ?? ?? ?? Chemistry Coursework Haaziq Farook 11o Ms Rahman ...read more.

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This is a very well written report. The experimental method is evaluated with preliminary tests used to refine the experimental method. The data is robust and reliable. The main limitation is the lack of any graphs of the experimental data collected. There are specific strengths and limitations suggested throughout.

Marked by teacher Cornelia Bruce 17/04/2013

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