• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17
  18. 18
    18

To investigate the effect of the concentration of nitric acid on the rate of reaction between the nitric acid and magnesium granules.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

FACTORS AFFECTING RATES OF REACTION AIM: To investigate the effect of the concentration of nitric acid on the rate of reaction between the nitric acid and magnesium granules BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE: The equation for this reaction is: Word: Magnesium + Nitric acid Magnesium Nitrate + Hydrogen Gas Balanced Equation: The products of the reaction between nitric acid and magnesium are magnesium nitrate, water and hydrogen gas. In my main investigation, I will measure the rate of reaction by calculating the volume of hydrogen gas produced, using a gas syringe, over a certain time period. I will then plot a graph of gas produced against time for all of the different concentrations of nitric acid. Having plotted gas produced against time for each concentration, I will then take a tangent of the line produced by each concentration graph and calculate the rate of reaction for each concentration. The rate of reaction will be calculated as follows: Rate of reaction = volume of gas produced/time (cm�/second) Having done that, I will plot a graph of rate of the reaction for each concentration against concentration, and then state what type of relationship there is between the concentration of acid and the rate of reaction. I will then be able to conclude and state from my results what type of relationship my results show as explained on the following page. I will then analyse and evaluate the data to conclude whether concentration affects the rate of a reaction and how. Relationships: Where 'A' and 'B' are two reactants which react to produce 'C' (A+B --> C): Type of Relationship Characteristic Graph Shape Explanation Zero Order In a zero order relationship, if one was to double the concentration of 'A' and keep 'B' constant, there would be no change to the rate of reaction. Therefore, the graph of rate (y) against concentration (x) would produce a flat line 1st Order In a 1st order relationship, if one was to double the concentration of 'A' and keep 'B' constant, then the rate of reaction would also double. ...read more.

Middle

Another thing I noted was that the reaction had also generated a lot of heat energy. This also caused disruption and unreliability to any potential results because the temperature is also a variable which affects the rate of reaction and needs to be kept constant because it is not being investigated. I decided that I would need to reduce the amount of magnesium used considerably in order for the reaction to occur at a pace which was suitable enough for me to obtain and record reliable results and be able to draw conclusions from them. I therefore changed the method for my main investigation. If I had had more time, I would have conducted a second preliminary investigation to make sure that the changes would be adequate before then conducting my main investigation This concluded my preliminary investigation. I decided that I had enough knowledge to pursue my main investigation. I opted to keep the same method, the only alteration being to broaden the scale of results by recording results at 5 second intervals rather than 10 second intervals. MAIN INVESTIGATION AIM: To investigate the effect of concentration on the rate of the reaction in the following reaction: Magnesium + Nitric acid Magnesium Nitrate + Hydrogen Gas APPARATUS: * Magnesium Granules (0.3 grams) * Nitric Acid (50cm�) [see method for more details] * Conical Flask * Measuring Cylinder * Retort stand and clamp * Gas Syringe * Stopwatch / timer * Top-pan balance / scales METHOD: 1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram. 2. Carefully measure 0.3 grams of magnesium granules using a top-pan balance. 3. Carefully measure out 50cm� of acid solution using a measuring cylinder. The acid should be diluted with water to form a final 50cm� solution at the correct concentration. (See conversion table) 4. Place the magnesium granules into the conical flask, making sure each time that the granules go to the bottom of the conical flask without any becoming stuck to the sides so that the surface area remains constant. ...read more.

Conclusion

A slight modification to the apparatus would help to correct this problem: The apparatus could be set up as shown in the diagram on the next page: By adding an extra syringe, the nitric acid can be measured out accurately and administered when ready, without any gas escaping from the conical flask. Therefore, the results obtained are more reliable and the likelihood of anomalous results is reduced. There are other improvements which I could make to my method to make my results more reliable in a future investigation. For similar future investigations, I would adapt the suggested improvements into my method where possible, to ensure that I have more reliable results and that I can reach fairer and more valid conclusions. However, I believe that, with the apparatus and conditions which I had available to me the investigation was conducted as fairly and sincerely as possible. With more advanced apparatus, the results of the experiment could have been even more reliable and I will take note of this for future reference. DEVELOPING THE INVESTIGATION: This investigation is fairly flexible in the sense that there are a few other variables which could be investigated and the experiment can be easily modified to accommodate this. For example, the apparatus could be modified to investigate: * The effect of temperature - by using a thermostatically water bath and changing the temperature at which the reaction takes place to investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction. * The effect of a catalyst - bye introducing a catalyst to the reaction to see what effect this has on the rate of reaction. A catalyst gives particles a surface to stick to, thus promoting more effective collisions. * The effect of surface area - by changing the surface area of the magnesium e.g. using magnesium strips as an alternative to granules and seeing the effect that this has on the rate of reaction. A larger surface area will give reactant particles a bigger area to collide with, therefore promoting more effective collisions and increasing the rate of reaction. Chukwuweta Ikeh GCSE CHEMISTRY COURSEWORK 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. The rate of reaction between Nitric acid and marble chips.

    Faster collisions are only caused by increasing the temperature. Reactions only happen if the particles collide with enough energy to make the reaction happen. This initial energy is known as the activation energy, and is needed to break the initial bonds. Hypothesis and Prediction My prediction is that as you increase the temperature there will be an increase in the rate of production of CO2.

  2. The aim of the investigation is to examine the kinetics involved in the reactions ...

    These will in turn slower the rate of the reaction. This is called crowding effects. Using 10 cm3 of 2 molar acids Number of moles = (volume/ 1000) x concentration = 10/1000x 2 = 0.02 moles of acid Ratio of acid to Mg = 0.02: 5.8 x 10-4 = 34:

  1. How does changing the concentration of the Hydrochloric acid affect it reactions with Magnesium?

    Also (and more importantly), the collisions are more energetic. If the stirring factor is not carefully controlled it could lead to inaccurate results if the concentration of the acid solution is not what we calculated it to be. The surface area made no apparent difference, although it is hard to tell with the small amount of data that we collected for surface area.

  2. An investigation into the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction. The disappearing ...

    I predict that the graph will look like the one from my preliminary work - this is on a separate sheet. Fair Test In order to receive some reliable and accurate results I will have to make sure I conduct a reasonably fair test.

  1. The effect of concentration on the activity of catalase.

    30secs 0.2cm3 1cm3 7cm3 13cm3 20cm3 60secs 0.4cm3 3cm3 11cm3 23cm3 35cm3 90secs 0.7cm3 5cm3 15cm3 34cm3 50cm3 120secs 0.9cm3 7cm3 19cm3 45cm3 65cm3 150secs 1.2cm3 8cm3 23cm3 56cm3 79cm3 180secs 1.4cm3 10cm3 27cm3 68cm3 93cm3 210secs 1.7cm3 12cm3 32cm3 78cm3 107cm3 240secs

  2. An investigation into how surface area affects the rate of reaction

    This shows the rate of reaction is fastest when increasing surface area. A tangent was drawn at the beginning of each curve and its gradient calculated, the gradients are shown in the table below. From these gradients it is clear that powdered marble chips reacted the fastest than to the medium or the small marble chip.

  1. Experiment to investigate how changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of ...

    This is the collision theory. When the particles collide, their bonds breakdown to form new ones. However, most collisions are not successful. This is because a minimum amount of kinetic energy is needed to break down the bonds. The minimum energy needed to start any chemical reaction is called the activation energy.

  2. Chemistry Cwk Rates of reaction: Investigating One Factor Which Affects How Fast Calcium Carbonate ...

    If there are more particles with activation energy then there is a larger probability of successful collisions. The collisions will also take place faster because the particles with activation energy before the change in temperature will have even more kinetic energy and move faster than before.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work