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To investigate the effects of change of concentration on rate of reaction - between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochoric Acid

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Introduction

To investigate the effects of change of concentration on rate of reaction - between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochoric Acid Planning Aim: To accurately investigate the affect of concentration of acid on the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate. Theory Carbonates are compounds made of a metal cation and a carbonate anion. Calcium carbonate is an example of a carbonate. All carbonates react with acids to give off carbon dioxide. Calcium Carbonate (CaCo3) is a white, insoluble solid that occurs naturally as limestone, chalk, marble and calcite. In the case of this investigation the reaction between dilute Hydrochloric Acid and dry Calcium Carbonate the formula equation is: CaCO3(s) + 2HCl (aq) CaCl3 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l) The Rate of Chemical Reaction can be defined as "the time it takes for an amount of product to appear or for an amount of reactant to disappear." In this reaction we will be studying the amount of carbon dioxide that has 'appeared' over a set time period. Before a reaction can occur a number of things must happen: * Particles must collide before they can react * There must be enough energy between the particles for bonds to break * They must collide at the appropriate angle In liquids like HCl, particles are in constant motion, but only some collisions are successful. ...read more.

Middle

This can then help make the comparison between resistivity of constantan at room temperature to the resistance we find in our experiments. Stop Watch: This will be used to time the experiment; to ensure accurate recording over a lapsed time, of the amount of Carbon Dioxide emitted by the reaction. Balance: To make sure that the marble chips are as similar as possible, all the chips will be weighed. Because the balance is electronic, there can be no reading error, though zero error must be noted. The balance was used, as it is accurate up to one-tenth of a gram Clamps and Stand: These will be used to hold the apparatus (the gas syringe) in place during the experiment. SAFETY: Although we are using only dilute lab Hydrochloric Acid, it must be noted that care should be given with the usage. Care must be taken to not allow the acid to touch the skin, eyes e.t.c and hands must be thoroughly washed after the experiments completion. TABLES for this experiment will look like this: This is because this is the neatest and clearest way to present recorded information. Molar Concentration CO2 Collected (cm�) 1 CO2 Collected (cm�) 2 Average CO2 Collected (cm�) Mass 1 (g) Mass 2 (g) Average Mass (g) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 THE PROCEDURE: * First, put the equipment in place as shown in the diagram. ...read more.

Conclusion

Various sources were used in compiling background information, making the theory sounder and arguably more accurate. The experiment itself was conducted in a professional manner, trying to make the results as accurate as possible by making the experiment fair. Controlling all the independent variables and repeating the experiment twice in order to check if there were any anomalous results ensured this. If the experiment could be extended; then investigations on how much CO2 is lost by dissolving into the water within the acid could be pursued. This would give increasingly accurate results, especially for the low concentration solutions, which have more water to dissolve the carbon dioxide into. If the experiment could be repeated then there would be some minor changes made. Firstly, -because the surface area of the marble chips cannot be measured and thus cannot be controlled - powdered calcium carbonate could be used. This would mean that the surface areas exposed would be more uniform. The timer is also affected as it is pressed by people whose reactions may not be fast enough to start immediately from when the reaction first started. This is important, as there may be minor changes in the amount of carbon dioxide produced in the time set. Overall, it must be said that the experiment was highly accurate and safely carried out. It proved the original prediction/hypothesis: As concentration of the HCl acid is increased, the rate of reaction will also increase. ...read more.

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