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To investigate the effects of the concentration of Hydrochloric acid on the rate of reaction with marble chips.

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Introduction

Chemistry Coursework Aim - To investigate the effects of the concentration of Hydrochloric acid on the rate of reaction with marble chips. Prediction - The rate of reaction is affected by four different factors: * Concentration of reactant * Temperature * Surface area * Catalyst In order for the reaction to take place, the particles must have enough energy to collide. The higher the concentration of the acid, the more particles there are more collisions, which means it will break down quicker. An increase in temperature will make the particles move about more. This increase in movement will result in more collisions. The larger the surface area of the solid reactant (marble chips) means the acid particles have a larger area to work on, which means it will be broken down faster because there will be more collisions. A catalyst works by giving the reacting surface something to stick to, where they can collide with each other. This increases the number of collisions. I used the NEAB Modular Science Revision guide to research collision theory to understand what it is and found the above diagrams. My prediction uses different concentrations of acid. I predict that as I increase the concentration of acid the rate at which the marble chips are broken down will also increase. ...read more.

Middle

Time (seconds) 1st experiment 2nd experiment Average 0 0 0 0 20 30 50 40 40 55 80 67.5 60 80 110 95 80 100 140 120 100 120 160 143 120 135 180 157.5 140 145 200 172.5 160 160 215 187.5 180 170 225 197.5 200 180 235 207.5 1.5 Molar Volume of carbon dioxide produced (cm() Time (seconds) 1st experiment 2nd experiment Average 0 0 0 0 20 20 25 22.5 40 40 45 42.5 60 55 65 60 80 70 80 75 100 85 90 87.5 120 95 110 102.5 140 105 120 112.5 160 115 130 122.5 180 125 140 132.5 200 135 145 140 1 Molar Volume of carbon dioxide produced (cm() Time (seconds) 1st experiment 2nd experiment Average 0 0 0 0 20 15 10 12.5 40 30 28 29 60 40 42 41 80 50 53 51.5 100 60 63 61.5 120 65 77 71 140 70 82 76 160 80 88 84 180 85 94 89.5 200 95 102 98.5 1.5 Molar Volume of carbon dioxide produced (cm() Time (seconds) 1st experiment 2nd experiment Average 0 0 0 0 20 2 2 2 40 8 9 8.5 60 14 15 14.5 80 20 23 21.5 100 28 29 28.5 120 33 34 33.5 140 37 38 37.5 160 40 42 41 180 44 45 44.5 200 47 48 47.5 Conclusion - The results and the graph prove that as the concentration of the aid increases the volume of gas produced also increases. ...read more.

Conclusion

Also doing the experiment more than once would improve the accuracy and reliability of our results. We have enough results to conclude that as the concentration of the acid increases the volume of gas produced also increases, but our results would be more exact if we were to conduct the experiment a lot more times. To improve this experiment, if I was going to do it again, I would conduct it at least four times for each concentration so that our results would be more reliable. I would also rule out any errors caused by the difference in the surface area of the chips by grinding the marble chips so that they were all the same size or I would use marble powder. I would also use professionally prepared concentrations of acid to rule out any possibility of errors in the making of the different concentrations of acid. I would also continue the experiment for another 100 seconds to see whether the volume of gas produced gets smaller as all of the marble chips have broken down. To eliminate any errors caused by the putting the bung in the test tube, we could use a gas syringe to collect all the gas produced without loosing any at the start. As another way of testing the concentration of acid, we could the experiment differently by measuring the mass of the acid and marble before and after the experiment to see which of the concentrations had lost the most mass. Fiona Kelley 11KC - Chemistry Coursework ...read more.

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