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To Investigate the Factors Affecting the Rate of Erosion of Buildings Made of Marble By Acid Rain.

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Introduction

Aim I am going to investigate the factors affecting the rate of erosion of buildings made of marble by acid rain. The variables affecting the rate of erosion include: * Concentration of acid-since this increases the probability of collisions between the acid molecules and the marble. I would predict that the greater the concentration the greater the probability of collisions and so the faster the rate of reaction. * Surface area-whether the marble was in chips or in fine powder form. The greater the surface area the more likely there will be collisions between the marble and the acid solution. * Temperature-the higher the temperature the greater the average kinetic energy of the molecules of the marble and the acid, so the rate of reaction will be increased because of the probability of collisions. The chemical equation for the reaction is: CaCo3(s) + 2HCl(?q) ? CaCl2(aq)+ CO2(g) + H2O(l) I have decided to investigate the relationship between concentration of acid and the rate of reaction. ...read more.

Middle

Hypothesis A greater concentration implies more acid molecules per unit volume. This gives rise to greater probability of collisions with the marble and leads to a faster chemical reaction. Results 1 Mass of Marble (g) Molarity (m/cm�) Concentration of acid (cm�) Concentration of water (cm�) Total volume (cm�) Time (s) 20 0.2 10 40 50 238.56 20 0.4 20 30 50 194.72 20 0.6 30 20 50 134.38 20 0.8 40 10 50 49.87 20 1.0 50 0 50 8.21 Results 2 Mass of Marble (g) Molarity (m/cm�) Concentration of acid (cm�) Concentration of water (cm�) Total volume (cm�) Time (s) 20 0.2 10 40 50 234.31 20 0.4 20 30 50 198.94 20 0.6 30 20 50 128.72 20 0.8 40 10 50 45.36 20 1.0 50 0 50 10.45 An average time for each concentration can now be determined: Mass of Marble (g) Molarity (m/cm�) Concentration of acid (cm�) Concentration of water (cm�) Total Volume (cm�) ...read more.

Conclusion

* The surface area of the marble chips is very difficult to make uniform, therefore in the experiment, the best control would be to ground the marble into a fine powder and compare times. This would make the surface area of the calcium carbonate (marble) as uniform as possible. * To keep the temperature the same. Although the experiment was conducted in the laboratory, at room temperature, this could make it an unfair test as the temperature may fluctuate. To perform the experiment in a fume cupboard, with a thermostat control would be more advisable. * To record the volume of gas liberated every 10 seconds until each experiment continued to completion. e.g. volume completion time Conclusion The greater the concentration of acid the shorter the time to fill the gas cylinder. This implies that the greater the concentration of acid the faster the reaction. However, the relationship between concentration of acid and rate of reaction does not appear to be a linear relationship because for higher concentrations the length of time for the experiment to be completed becomes progressively shorter. 1 1 ...read more.

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