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# To investigate the factors affecting the volume of carbon dioxide produced when a carbonate reacts with an acid.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Plan Aim To investigate the factors affecting the volume of carbon dioxide produced when a carbonate reacts with an acid. Scientific Knowledge When an acid reacts with a base, it forms a salt and water. When an acid reacts with a metal, it forms a salt and hydrogen. However, the general equation that will be useful to me in this experiment is when an acid reacts with a carbonate, it forms a salt, carbon dioxide and water. Carbonate + Acid Salt + CO2 + H2O From this general equation, I can decide an appropriate method. When the three products are formed, a way of separating them must be figured out, because it is the volume of carbon dioxide that is being measured. This should not be too difficult, because carbon dioxide is a gas, whereas salts and water are not. Therefore, a delivery tube could be used to transfer the carbon dioxide to a measuring cylinder. The volume of acid used in this experiment must be in excess. This means that it must exceed the volume needed to react with the maximum mass of carbonate. Therefore, as the maximum mass of carbonate used is 0.55g (worked out in preliminary work), the volume of acid must exceed the volume needed to totally react with 0.55g. Otherwise, the substances will not totally react, and the maximum volume of carbon dioxide will not be produced. We can calculate the volume using the following equation... Volume (dm3) = Amount (mol) . Concentration (mol/dm3) The maximum mass of carbonate that can be used is... RFM of CaCO3 . Area 1mol of CO2 occupies x Maximum capacity of measuring cylinder 100 . 1 . 24000 x 100 = 240 x 100 = 0.416666... = 0.42 (3sf) The chemical equation for this experiment is: CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O This shows that the ratio of carbonate (CaCO3) ...read more.

Middle

The mass of carbonate must be measured to as close to 5cm intervals as possible, the volume of acid must be as close to 25cm3 as possible, and the reading of the volume of CO2 off the measuring cylinder must be done carefully, and precisely. Hypothesis From evidence obtained in the preliminary work, I predict that the volume of carbon dioxide will increase as the mass of carbonate does. (As the mass of CaCO3 increases, the volume of CO2 increases). I predict that the graph of results will look similar to this: Volume of CO2 Mass of CaCO3 I have decided to do some calculated predictions. These will be useful to check my main results by. The ratio of CO2:CaCO3 is 1:1 This means that the volume of CO2 produced is directly proportional to the mass of CaCO3. (I.e. if the mass of CaCO3 is doubled, then the volume of CO2 produced will double). At 25�C and at atmospheric pressure, the volume of 1 mole of ANY GAS is 24dm3 24dm3 = 24000cm3 1 mole of CO2 occupies 24000cm3 RFM of CaCO3 = 40.0 + 12.0 + (16.0 x 3) = 100 Volume of CO2 produced = Area that 1 mol of CO2 occupies Molecular Mass of CaCO3 x Mass of CaCO3 Therefore, 1g of CaCO3 will produce 24000 100 x 1 = 240cm3 Prediction Table Mass of CaCO3 (g) Calculation Volume of CO2 (cm3) 0.15 24000/100 x 0.15 36 0.20 24000/100 x 0.20 48 0.25 24000/100 x 0.25 60 0.30 24000/100 x 0.30 72 0.35 24000/100 x 0.35 84 0.40 24000/100 x 0.40 96 0.45 24000/100 x 0.45 108 0.50 24000/100 x 0.50 120 0.55 24000/100 x 0.55 132 After making these calculated predictions, I can see how inaccurate the preliminaries were. I decided that some of the carbon dioxide must be escaping between the time the carbonate is poured in, and the bung is put on. ...read more.

Conclusion

This wouldn't be as much of a problem if the volume of carbon dioxide lost each time was the same. Unfortunately, this is not the case, and the volume lost isn't constant, so the results shown in the graph do not show a straight line. If the volume of carbon dioxide lost each time was the same, the line would be straight, but it would be below the correct one, but as the volume lost was different each time, the line is not straight. The procedure would be improved by finding a way that the acid can be stopped from reacting with the carbonate until after the bung is put on the Buckner flask. The method using ignition tubes instead of simply pouring the carbonate into the flask did this, but as we can see, carbon dioxide was still lost. More ways to improve the procedure need to be researched. The evidence obtained was reliable in that no anomalies were spotted. However, reliability isn't the same as accuracy, and there were parts of the results where it was accurate and parts where it was less so, but throughout it was reliable. The fact that the results weren't so accurate, but were reliable shows that the same problem was occurring at the same level in each repetition of the experiment. From the evidence obtained, we can see that the range of masses of carbonate could be extended to gather more data. The minimum volume used could be 0.05g (in keeping with the 0.05g gap between masses used). The maximum mass used could not, be extended unless a larger measuring cylinder is used. One reason why the volume of carbon dioxide produced was more than it should have been is that there were already a few bubbles in the measuring cylinder from where it was tipped over. This meant that these air bubbles would have been added to the volume of carbon dioxide produced, making the results slightly inaccurate. Taking further care when inverting the measuring cylinder could prevent this problem. ?? ?? ?? ?? - 1 - ...read more.

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