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# To investigate the factors those affect the rate of temperature rise in water when heated electrically.

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Introduction

AIM To investigate the factors those affect the rate of temperature rise in water when heated electrically. BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE When water is heated, heat energy from the electrical heater is transferred to the water, causing the water molecules to vibrate faster, which is what causes the temperature to rise. Heat supplied by heater = Heat given to water to raise its temperature + Heat absorbed by container + Heat lost to surroundings VARIABLES: Factors that I can vary or keep constant in the experiment: * Mass of water * Impurities in water * Surface area of liquid * Current (Voltage) * Time heated * Starting temperature * Change in temperature * Insulation Factors that I can measure in the experiment: * Time taken to change the temperature by a constant number of degrees * Change in temperature after a constant time PRELIMINARY WORK To decide which variable would be the best to vary and measure, I decided to do some preliminary experimental work. During this, I decided that the best factor to vary would be the current. This is because I felt that this is the variable that would lead to the least troubles with experimentation. ...read more.

Middle

As the current is doubled, the rise in temperature will also double. (Current is proportional to voltage) So I will expect the graph to look like this: From the graph showing current against the average change in temperature, it can be seen that as the current is increased, the change in temperature also increases. The graph shows direct correlation between the current used and the average change in temperature. However, the graph is not proportional like I expected it to be in the prediction I made. The line is a curve, and for it to be proportional, it would have to be straight. Therefore, the change in temperature does not double when the current is doubled. However, the basic prediction was still correct, that the higher the current, the higher the average change in temperature. The reason for this is as I explained in the planning section. I took out da boffination in this part cus it wud be obvious dat u copied me if u used it... but its all dis madness 2 do wit da formalas and dat.... There were quite a few reasons for why my results may have been inaccurate: * It takes some time for the heater to heat up, so the first few runs would have been different from others. ...read more.

Conclusion

I think the experiment was very fair, given the circumstances. However, I could have made it fairer by using the same ammeter and voltmeter every time. Also, I could have done the whole experiment in one day, meaning that the surrounding temperature would not change by as much. Another thing I could have done was measure the distance between the thermometer and heater and made sure that this stayed the same. I could have also used distilled water so that the hardness was the same in every experiment. Finally, I could have put some type of mechanical stirrer in the cup so that the water would be heated evenly. To extend my experiment, I could have measured the change in temperature after a constant time, while varying the current each time. I could have also varied the mass of the water. Another thing I could have done was experiment with a larger range of voltages. This would give me a larger view of how the current affects the temperature change and would have helped me come to a firmer conclusion. Even though my results did not turn out as I expected, and they were not completely accurate, I can still draw a firm conclusion from them: The higher the current is, the higher the change in temperature ...read more.

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