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To investigate the factors which affect the rate of reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid, with one in specific detail.

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Introduction

An investigation into how surface area affects the rate of reaction Aim: To investigate the factors which affect the rate of reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid, with one in specific detail. Scientific knowledge: Marble chips erode when they are exposed to acid rain or pollution. Erosion is evident when you look at older marble buildings as in certain cases the erosion take a long time. It is more likely to occur in areas, where there is more pollution. This is because there are a greater number of industries in city than in the countryside. Especially the higher amount of cars which release carbon dioxide, formed as a waste gas in reactions such as internal combustion. Carbonic acid (the product of carbon dioxide and water) mixes with acidic pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen to form acid rain. When this rain contacts the rocks, a chemical reaction takes place, weathering the rock. Sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen produced by industries in the cities also increase acid rain; hence, acid rain is more common in cities than anywhere else. Marble is a metamorphic rock, which means that the rock consists of inter locking crystals and the rock itself is very hard. To have gained this state, the rock was compressed and heated over thousands of years by tectonic activity. Metal Carbonate + Acid Salt + Water + Carbon dioxide Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric acid = Calcium Chloride + Water +Carbon dioxide 2 HCL (aq) + CaCO3 = CaCl2 (s) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) To speed up the rate of a reaction, you can: * Add a catalyst * Increase the temperature * Increase the surface area * Increase the concentration These four methods all link in with the "Collision Theory" The basics of Collision Theory: Collision Theory relates to the number of molecules in the reaction, the chance of colliding correctly and the correct amount of energy. ...read more.

Middle

From my preliminary experiment I would expect a similar graph for my main experiment. Main Experiment Aim: To investigate the speed of the chemical reactions affected by the size of marble chips, when reacting with Hydrochloric Acid. Predication: I predict that the Size of marble chip will affect the reaction rate, by: The larger the Marble Chips the slower the reaction rate, and the Smaller the Marble Chips, the faster the reaction rate. I predict this due to the fact that the more surface area, the more likely a reaction is to take place, which is based upon Collision Theory. Final apparatus: A stopwatch, a conical flask, a delivery tube, an electronic scale, rubber tube, water, basin, 3 different sizes of Marble chips (preferably - medium, small and powdered.), 1 M Hydrochloric Acid, safety goggles, measuring cylinder, Diagram Final Method 1.Set the apparatus as shown above. 2. I will measure out 25cm3 of 1 Mole of Hydrochloric Acid. I did this by using a measuring cylinder. 3. I will pour the acid into the conical flask. For safety I will wear goggles. 4. I will measure out 4.5 of marble chips on a scale and put them in the flask, as soon as all the marble chips are in the flask, I will put the rubber tube in the flask and start the stopwatch. 5. For every 15 seconds, I will take the measurement of the of gas produced, for medium and small chips in the measuring cylinder by looking at the stopwatch continuously to see the time the reaction has had. 6. For the powdered chips I will take the measurement every 5secs 7. I will repeat steps 1-4 while changing the size of the marble chips, as I am using 3 sizes - Small, Medium, and Large, I will start sequentially with the smallest one. Making sure taking the same amount of chips and hydrochloric acid at each time. ...read more.

Conclusion

I had only one anomalous result due in the experiment; this is why I chose this factor to show the effect on the rate of reaction. The only odd result that I had was with the medium size chips-time taken 45 secs-66cm3. I would like to also investigate other factors, which affect the rate of a reaction like temperature and concentration to see how they affect the rate of a reaction. I think my experiment was successful as I was able to obtain the evidence I needed to achieve my aim. I was planning to observe each reaction every 15 secs but I was unable to do so because the reaction using the powdered marble was very quick and therefore observed it every 5 secs. My graphs helped in proving my aim. A distinctive trend is shown in the graph as clearly show that small particles react faster than large particles. I was interested in this experiment when I first started. I was interested in seeing changes in the reactants at the end of the reaction. I was very satisfied when I found out that my predictions were correct. To furthur my experiment: I could use sulphuric acid. This is a dibasic acid and its molecular build-up is H2SO4 and hydrochloric acid is 2HCL, because of this I would obtain different results. I could also use phosphoric acid, which is a tribasic acid, and its molecular build-up is H3PO4, I would also obtain different results if I used this type of acid. Nitric acid is a monobasic acid but its molecular build-up is HNO3, which is very similar to the molecular build-up of hydrochloric acid so the results that I would obtain from using this acid would be similar to the ones I already have, so I would not use this for any further experiments. The reason I could use a different type of acid for any further work is to find if there is a difference between them if their molecular build up is different. I could also use the less reactive metals of the reactivity series (zinc, aluminium, iron and lead). ...read more.

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