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To investigate the heat evolved, temperature rise, and heat of neutralization that takes place with different volumes.

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Planning Experimental Procedures Aim: To investigate the heat evolved, temperature rise, and heat of neutralization that takes place with different volumes. As seen above the aim of my coursework is to find the heat of neutralization reaction, the heat evolved due to the reaction along with the temperature rise when the reaction takes place. The neutralization reaction is defined as the reaction between an acid and an alkali. Thus I decided to choose hydrochloric acid for the acid and sodium hydroxide for the alkali. NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O To get a better understanding of the neutralization reaction I decide first to understand the difference between an acid and an alkali (base) and their properties. An acid is a compound which when dissolved in the water to produce hydrogen ions as the only positive ions. An acid is decided is strong or weak by how is it ionized in water thus a strong acid is one, which is almost completely ionized in water. An alkali is a compound that reacts with water to produce hydroxide ions as the only negative ions. As I said above the neutralization reaction takes place between the hydrogen ions, which are acidic, and the hydroxide ions, which are alkaline, and below is the ionic equation showing the neutralization reaction, which is going to produce water as a result. Na + OH + H + Cl Na + Cl + H2O Thus giving H + OH H2O - 58 Kj / mole The following model diagram can represent this: H + OH H2O - 58 Kj / mole The reaction above is the neutralization reaction. There are two types of reaction one is endothermic and exothermic. The endothermic reaction is one which takes in heat to form bonds for the reaction as they need energy to form those bonds this heat can be taken from the surroundings or you apply heat this heat is called the activation energy. ...read more.


Then I am going to fill the burette up to the zero mark of it (N.B When carrying on the process of filling and measuring I am going to make sure that lower meniscus is perpendicular to the line of my sight) I am going then to record the temperature of the alkali and note it down. Then I am going to let the acid from the burette 5 cm� at a time. Thus finding the temperature first when the total is 20 cm� then I am going to throw the mixture and then I will note the temperature when the total is 25 cm� and then note the temperature and so on. When adding the acid I am going to stir it with the stirrer to make sure everything reacted. I am going to follow this method for the other two sets of readings which are 30 cm� and 45 cm�. I am going to obtain 6 sets of readings with difference of 5 cm� between each of them. Factors to be kept constant: The volume of the NaOH is going to be kept constant only the volume of acid which going to be kept constant. Other factors like the concentration, temperature and the pressure are to be kept constant so that the only varying constant is the volume of the acid. Precautions when carrying on the experiment: * First of all I am going to clean all the apparatus so as to make sure that there is no undesirable substances in the apparatus. * Then as I said above I have to make sure the line of my sight is correct. * I have to make sure that I do not spill any acid or alkali on my hands so that I will not burn them or ware gloves. I have shown below the table in which I am going to record the observation. 15 cm� Vol. of NaOH (cm3) Vol. of HCl (cm3) Initial Temperature (�C) Final Temperature (�C) ?? (�C) ...read more.


* The new technology could also be used in this case where the sensors could be used to measure the temperature where the computer records the temperature at an interval of 10 seconds, which could help the one to achieve a highest possible accuracy that could be achieved. The experiment could have been expanded in various possible directions as seen below * The experiment could have been used to investigate different concentration thus having a wider range to improve the results. * The experiment could have been made using different kind of acids and alkalis. Strong acids and strong alkalis could be used as well as the weak acids and weak alkalis. * An indicator could have been used so that we can record at what volume the acid neutralizes the alkali and see if it matches with the results of the graph Obtaining Evidence I carried now the experiment and below is the results tabulated: 15 cm� Vol. of NaOH (cm3) Vol. of HCl (cm3) Initial Temperature (�C) Final Temperature (�C) ?? (�C) 15 0 0.00 0.00 0 15 5 26.1 28.0 1.9 15 10 26.2 31.0 4.8 15 15 26.0 31.0 5 15 20 26.3 30.5 4.2 15 25 26.0 29.5 3.5 15 30 26.0 28.5 2.5 30 cm� Vol. of NaOH (cm3) Vol. of HCl (cm3) Initial Temperature (�C) Final Temperature (�C) ?? (�C) 30 0 0.00 0.00 0 30 10 26.1 29.7 3.65 30 20 26.1 31.5 5.4 30 30 26.0 32.0 6 30 40 26.2 29.5 3.3 30 50 26.0 29.0 3 30 60 26.2 29.0 2.8 45 cm� Vol. of NaOH (cm3) Vol. of HCl (cm3) Initial Temperature (�C) Final Temperature (�C) ?? (�C) 45 0 0.00 0.00 0 45 15 26.0 27.0 1 45 30 26.1 31.5 5.4 45 45 26.0 32.2 6.25 45 60 26.3 31.5 5.2 45 75 26.1 30.5 4.4 45 90 26.2 30.0 3.8 ...read more.

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