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To investigate the individual factors which affect the rate of reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Aim To investigate the individual factors which affect the rate of reaction between Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid. Background Information For a reaction to take place between two or more substances, in this case magnesium and hydrochloric acid, the reactants must first collide with each other. However, they also have to collide with a minimum amount of energy for a reaction to occur. This is called activation energy. The word equation for, when magnesium reacts with hydrochloric acid is: Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid Magnesium chloride + Hydrogen By looking at this equation I can tell that this will be an exothermic reaction, as hydrogen will be released in the form of energy. To explain this exothermic reaction, there is a simple energy profile below which helps to describe how the activation energy works. The graph above shows how much activation energy is needed for the particles to react for an exothermic reaction. If the particles collide with less than the required amount of activation energy then a reaction cannot take place. The graph above shows that the vast majority of the particles do not have enough energy for them to react. To allow these particles to react we can either change the shape of the curve or move the activation energy further to the left. To do this I can change one of the factors/variables that affect the rate of this reaction. ...read more.

Middle

so the total volume of the solution is 25cm3. 4) Pour the solution into the flask 5) Add the magnesium ribbon to the flask and replace the bung as quickly as possible. Get your partner to start the stopwatch at the same time. 6) Another person should be holding the measuring cylinder in the bowl as shown in the diagram during the reaction is taking place. 7) During the reaction is taking place hydrogen gas should travel through the delivery tube into the measuring cylinder. Read off the volume of hydrogen produced in the measuring cylinder from the meniscus every 10 seconds. 8) Record the results in a table until the reaction hasn't stopped. 9) Repeat all the steps above to do this experiment 2 more times, so that an accurate average can be obtained. 10) Repeat the experiment with different concentrations (from steps 2-9) for the following concentrations: * 12.5cm3 of 2 mol dm3 hydrochloric acid mixed with 12.5cm3 water (a concentration of 5:5) * 15cm3 of 2 mol dm3 hydrochloric acid mixed with 10cm3 water (a concentration of 6:4) * 17.5cm3 of 2 mol dm3 hydrochloric acid mixed with 7.5cm3 water (a concentration of 7:3) * 20cm3 of 2 mol dm3 hydrochloric acid mixed with 5cm3 water (a concentration of 8:2) * 22.5cm3 of 2 mol dm3 hydrochloric acid mixed with 2.5cm3 water (a concentration of 9:1) ...read more.

Conclusion

Evaluation As my method and plan was to make the experiment a fair test and if I had made sure that the results were exactly accurate, the results should have been near perfect. But because I could not ensure exact measurement was used, this could be a possible reason for the slight inaccuracy in the results. There is an inaccuracy that cannot be ruled out of my experiment, unless there is another way of performing the experiment, and that is human error. For example one of the major problems was that when some help from a friend was needed to start the experiment and this lead to a small delay in starting the stopwatch. Another problem was that some of our measurements were in decimals; we had to use a measuring cylinder, which was not very accurate either. Next time I could use a more accurate measuring device or keep it simple and just use whole numbers. To control the excess heat I could use cooling bars, which takes away any excess heat so it as at room temperature. Overall besides these possible errors I think my results are reliable because they show a pattern they back up my prediction and support the Generally the results I have obtained are reliable enough to support the conclusions I have come to about the values for the rates of reaction, the collision theory and the order of reactions because I did my experiment as accurately as possible. Disregarding the small sources of errors, which do not affect my results vastly. By Priya Arora 11TT ...read more.

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