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To investigate the rate of reaction between different concentrations of hydrochloric acid with metal carbonates using calcium carbonate as an example.

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Introduction

To investigate the rate of reaction between different concentrations of hydrochloric acid with metal carbonates using calcium carbonate as an example. Aim We are going to investigate how concentration affects the rate of reaction; we will be reacting calcium carbonate (CaCO3) with hydrochloric acid (HCl). We will make this a fair test by keeping all the variables the same except the one we are investigating. The products of the reaction between the two are water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The equation for this reaction is: Calcium + Hydrochloric � Calcium + Carbon + Water Carbonate Acid Chloride Dioxide Solution CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) � CaCl2 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l) To measure the rate of the experiment, I could measure the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by the experiment at timed intervals (gas syringe experiment), or the decreasing mass of the reactants (mass reduction experiment). Alternatively, I could, measure the time to which the reactants react completely. The size of the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) available is either in granules (at an average) of � 0.5 cm measured lengthways (weight � 0.4-0.7 gm) or in powdered form. The highest concentration of acid available for use in the experiment is 2 mol dm-3. Variables Many different variables can affect the rate of reaction, below is a list of factors: * Concentration-to be investigated * Surface area * Temperature * Catalysts I plan to investigate the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction, for my experiment; there are various factors, which can affect the rate of reaction: * Size of the calcium carbonate- The larger it is, the more surface area it has, the more is in contact with the hydrochloric acid, therefore a faster rate of reaction * Concentration of hydrochloric acid/water solution- The more concentrated the solution the faster the reaction as there is more of the H+ ions to react with * Volume of acid/water solution- Amount to be reacted with the calcium carbonate, the more there ...read more.

Middle

3. This is the major problem with this experiment (variables), but if we take the average, and do many results, then this variable would not matter as much. 4. The preliminary experiments are designed so that we will know the correct amounts of the reactants to use, so that the experiment would not be too fast or too slow. 5. Scrape the calcium carbonate onto a piece of paper, then the calcium carbonate will not stick on to the paper, so you can pour all the calcium carbonate into the beaker to react. 6. Make sure the measuring boats are clean, before use, and if not, clean them before weighing the calcium carbonate, to remove the residuals, so that they will not be a part of the experiment. Below is a drawing of the experiment: Technique 3-Change in mass Equipment: -Digital balance (reads to 2 decimal places) -100 cm3 conical flask -Cotton wool -Hydrochloric acid (maximum concentration=2mol dm-3) -Calcium carbonate granules -Stop watch (time measured to nearest second) Method Put the flask containing the acid, granules on a piece of paper, and the cotton wool on to the balance, and turn on the balance (so it reads 0.00). This is the starting mass, we then put the calcium carbonate granules into the flask, and put the cotton wool on, we then start timing. We time at intervals of 10 seconds, and record the decreasing mass, the cotton wool is to stop the reactants, spitting out when reacting. Problems I did not do this experiment because there were not enough balances to go around. Therefore, I could not do the experiment. Answer Get some more balances so that we can use it for experiments. Below is a drawing of the experiment: Technique 4-Collection over water Equipment: -100cm3 conical flask -Measuring cylinder -Clamp -Stand -Container -Delivery tube -Stopwatch (time measured to nearest second) -Hydrochloric acid (maximum concentration= 2 mol dm-3) ...read more.

Conclusion

Therefore, when the calcium carbonate is added to these proportions of acid/water solution, there would be a higher rate of reaction because a higher temperature adds energy to the reaction, affecting how quickly the particles move, therefore increasing its rate of reaction. However for the lower amounts of acid added onto a higher amount of water, there would be a small increase in temperature, and not affect the rate of reaction too much. And to conclude, for a higher amount of acid added onto a smaller amount of water, the rise in temperature is more prominent and will affect the rate of reaction, while the lower amounts of added acid would not affect the rate of reaction to the same degree. * The water that comes out from the tap, which is used to dilute the acid, into the acid/water proportion solution, is not in the same temperature as the room temperature. It comes from the cold-water tap and therefore on some days the water is colder than on others when used for the experiment. As the weather outside controls the temperature inside the plumbing. Therefore, I am forced to conclude, that in the experiment the water temperature will vary 1-3 degrees Celsius from each other day's experimentations. And so, a higher temperature adds energy to the reaction, and affecting how quickly the particles move, therefore increasing its rate of reaction a lower temperature will also affect how slowly the particles move, and slow the rate of reaction down. Therefore, in linking with the above theory of the acid-water reaction, temperature will play an important part in the experiment as well. * All the timings are all rounded up or down to the nearest second. Rounded up can only be possible if the last two digits of the milliseconds are 50 or above and anything below is rounded down. This does not give truly accurate results, but for the sake of ease, and processing the results, it is better for the results to be in whole integers. ...read more.

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