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To investigate the softening effects of sodium carbonate on tap water, using soap solution.

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Introduction

Saameendra Das 4H Chemistry Coursework: Planning AIM: To investigate the softening effects of sodium carbonate on tap water, using soap solution. EQUIPMENT: A measuring cylinder, to measure the water accurately A conical flask, with bung, to contain the water A burette, containing soap solution - [CH3 (CH2)16 CO2- ] or St- Up to 6 grams of sodium carbonate - [NaCO3] 25 cm3 of tap water per repetition of experiment SAFETY: Safety specs should be worn and care should be taken whilst handling the (glass) equipment. METHOD: 1) We shall measure 25 cm3 of tap water using a measuring cylinder. 2) We then will pour the 25 cm3 of tap water into a conical flask. 3) With 0.5 grams of sodium carbonate already measured out, we will place it into the conical flask (containing the tap water) and then shake it well (for ten seconds). 4) We will place the conical flask under the burette and release the soap solution, 0.2 cm3 (at a time). ...read more.

Middle

will be carried out if necessary. 9) For the other repetitions, all that varies is that we add 0.5 extra grams of sodium carbonate than we did in the repetition before (e.g. - for the third repetition 1.5 grams of sodium carbonate will be added). So we will repeat instruction 8 (adding the extra 0.5 grams per repetition), so we attain five results. We will be varying the sodium carbonate from 0.5 grams to 2.5 grams. 10) As a control we shall place 25 cm3 of distilled water into the conical flask (but not add sodium carbonate). Then we will do instructions 4-7. FAIR TEST: To make a fair test only one part of the experiment can be changed. In our experiment this is how much sodium carbonate is added. The volume of water per repetition is always the same, 25 cm3. The amount of soap solution released will be 0.2 cm3 at a time. ...read more.

Conclusion

solid called from tap water "Scum" Once all the calcium ions have been removed as a scum, lather will form. From our preliminary work, we have seen that 1 gram of sodium carbonate softens the water significantly, but not completely so we have chosen measures around this amount. Our class average shows that when adding 1 gram of sodium carbonate it takes (30.3 divided by 8) 3.8 cm3 of soap solution to form an unbroken lather across the water's surface for ten seconds. However my personals results gave a mean average of 2.5 cm3 of soap solution to form an unbroken lather across the water's surface for ten seconds. This is probably just an anomaly though. Once we collect our results our graph should look similar to this: Volume of soap Needed for lather Amount of sodium carbonate This is because when very little sodium carbonate is added to the water, a higher volume is needed for the lather, than with much more sodium carbonate. There could be a levelling off bit (a saturation point), where adding more sodium carbonate won't make a difference to the volume of soap needed for lather. ...read more.

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