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To investigate the thermal decomposition of copper carbonate and try to prove that the formula is CuCO3, and that the percentage of CO2 lost during thermal decomposition is 35.5%

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Introduction

Lauren Dakin 10S Science Group 10 2 Thermal Decomposition Aim: To investigate the thermal decomposition of copper carbonate and try to prove that the formula is CuCO3, and that the percentage of CO2 lost during thermal decomposition is 35.5% Introduction: Copper Carbonate has been given the formula CuCO3. I will prove this correct by studying its thermal decomposition. It has the potential to divide into three groups: 1. Copper Oxide and Carbon Dioxide (CuO) + (CO2) 2. Copper and Carbon and Oxygen (x3) (Cu) + (C) + (11/2O) 3. Copper and Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen (Cu) + (CO) + (O) I did a preliminary experiment to find out what copper carbonate thermally decomposed into. I heated some copper carbonate in a test tube and when it gave off gas I held a glowing splint in it. This is the test for Oxygen. If there is oxygen present, the splint will re-light. In this case, it did not so there was no oxygen present. I then did a test for Carbon Dioxide. This involved trapping a small amount of the gas given off by the thermally decomposing copper carbonate in a pipette and releasing it into a new test tube containing Lime Water. Carbon dioxide reacts with lime water to produce calcium carbonate, which is a liquid and cloudy white in appearance. The lime water did turn cloudy, which means there was carbon dioxide present in the gas given off by the copper carbonate. ...read more.

Middle

They will all be reliable because of the repetition and because the scales are accurate. They will all be recorded in grams, except the final set which will be in percent. Results: 1. 2. 3. Mass grams Crucible + lid grams Mass + crucible + lid grams Copper carbonate + mass + crucible +lid grams Copper oxide + mass + crucible +lid grams Mass of CuO grams Mass of CO2 lost grams % of CO2 lost grams 0.2 14.65 14.85 15.04 14.98 0.14 0.06 30% 0.4 14.14 14.54 15.24 15.13 0.29 0.11 27.5% 0.6 13.88 14.48 15.07 14.89 0.41 0.19 31.6% 0.8 12.85 13.65 14.45 14.18 0.53 0.27 33.7% 1.0 19.53 20.53 21.53 21.26 0.72 0.28 28% Mass grams Crucible + lid grams Mass + crucible + lid grams Copper carbonate + mass + crucible +lid grams Copper oxide + mass + crucible +lid grams Mass of CuO grams Mass of CO2 lost grams % of CO2 lost grams 0.2 14.65 14.85 15.05 15.01 0.13 0.07 35% 0.4 14.18 14.58 14.95 14.85 0.27 0.13 32.5% 0.6 13.00 13.60 14.20 14.00 0.40 0.20 33.3% 0.8 13.71 14.51 15.31 15.03 0.52 0.28 35% 1.0 12.69 13.69 14.69 14.33 0.64 0.36 36% Mass grams Crucible + lid grams Mass + crucible + lid grams Copper carbonate + mass + crucible +lid grams Copper oxide + mass + crucible +lid grams Mass of CuO grams Mass of CO2 lost grams % of CO2 lost grams 0.2 14.39 14.59 14.79 14.72 0.12 0.08 40% ...read more.

Conclusion

I did change the crucible and lid each time, but as they were weighed and the copper oxide was subtracted from their weight correctly each time, that doesn't interfere. The results I obtained support my experiment (apart from the two anomalous results) so, assuming my experiment can be classified as fair, I can claim that my results support my prediction and follow my theory: that the results should be around 35.5% and I predict a range of 30% to 41% (5.5% either side of 35.5%). I do have enough results to come to a clear conclusion but if I were to repeat the experiment I would like to take the 'mass/grams' up to 2.0. That would provide a clearer conclusion and also allow a higher chance for a pattern to be spotted. The main difficulty when carrying out the experiment itself was working out how long to heat the copper carbonate for. If I was to repeat the experiment, I would time how long each crucible was over the flame for. This would make the experiment fairer and more valid. I would also like to compare my results with more than one other person's results, and to compare the basic results, not just the average results. This would give a better idea of the results other people are getting, what conclusions they are reaching and how they got there. But I would only try the above ideas if I were to repeat the experiment. As it is, results are all adequate and have allowed me to come to a valid conclusion that supports my prediction. ...read more.

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