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To investigate three factors that affect the rate of cooling a liquid and to test these factors to see exactly how much they affect the rate of cooling water.

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Introduction

Aim The aim of this experiment is to investigate three factors that affect the rate of cooling a liquid and to test these factors to see exactly how much they affect the rate of cooling water. Background Information * The specific heat capacity of a substance is the heat required to produce a 1?C rise in 1kg. * The 'thirst' of a substance for heat is measured by it's specific heat capacity (c). * Heat is measured in joules (J). * The formula for heat received or given out is: * Heat received or given out = mass ? temperature change ? specific heat capacity * The formula for the heat received by water is: * Heat received by water (J) = power by heater (J/s) ? time heater on (s) * The formula for the specific heat capacity is: * Specific Heat capacity = heat received by water mass (kg) ? temp. rise * The formula for the rate of energy loss is: * Rate of energy loss = U value ? surface area ? temp. difference * The U value for a specified heat conductor is the heat energy lost per second through it per square metre when there is a temperature difference of 1?C between its surfaces. * The rate at which an object cools, i.e. at which it's temperature falls can be shown to be proportional to its area (A) to its volume (V): * For a cube of side l o A1 / V1 = 6 ? ...read more.

Middle

Finally I shall use the same material beakers and they will be all the same size and on the same material mat when cooling. Experiment 3 - In the third experiment I shall use the same water source for all the beakers and have the water at the same temperature when I start the stop clock. I shall use the same thermometer for all the beakers and I shall record all the beakers temperatures until they reach the same temperature. Finally I shall use the same size beakers, despite the fact that they are all different materials. Prediction Experiment 1 - I think that in the first experiment the beaker with no insulation will cool the quickest, then the corrugated card and finally the woollen lagging. I think this because in the beaker with no insulation, there is nothing except the glass of the beaker, stopping the heat from escaping, but with the woollen lagging and the card there is a barrier making it harder for the heat to escape. Experiment 2 - I think that in the second experiment the beaker with the least amount of water in it will cool the fastest and the beaker with the most water will cool the slowest. I think this because the energy is constantly being transferred from the water, being lost, so if there is less water this process can occur more quickly. Experiment 3 - I think that in the third experiment the good conductors, like aluminium and copper will cool more quickly than the bad conductor, glass. ...read more.

Conclusion

When I first attempted the different volumes of water I found that my original quantities of water took far too long to cool and so I had to reduce the quantities of the water as we could only observe the results in our Physics lesson. On the experiments when I tested for insulation, I did not actually make a cover for the beaker of the same material insulation and therefore the results may not be that accurate. Most of the heat was lost through the top of the beaker so that is why the end temperatures do not greatly differ. The equipment we used to take these readings could have altered the accuracy of the experiment if they were not that accurate themselves. The equipment that I assumed to be correct were the thermometers and the water baths. The factors that also limited my experiment were time, as I could only record results in my short hour Physics lesson and could only record up to twelve minutes to allow enough time for each of the experiments. Other factors may have also interfered with the experiments like different room temperatures for the different experiments and the water from the taps which may have varied in Ph slightly from experiment to experiment. These factors would not make significant changes to results, but it is worth noting them for reference. The experiments that I carried out were as fair as I could make them with the limited resources that I was given to carry them out and any other errors in results are the results of equipment inaccuracy. Daniel Sheedy 4RM ...read more.

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