• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To measure and compare the enthalpy change of combustion for four different types of fuels by burning them and measuring the increase in the temperature of water in a calorimeter.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Chemistry Coursework Planning Aim: To measure and compare the enthalpy change of combustion for four different types of fuels by burning them and measuring the increase in the temperature of water in a calorimeter. From the increase in temperature of a known mass of water it is possible to calculate the enthalpy change of combustion (?Hc) for the fuels by the following formula Energy transfer = mass x Specific Heat Capacity x ?T joules Where ?T = the change in temperature in degrees Kelvin. The specific heat capacity of water is 4,2 J g-1 K-1 (Cambridge Chemistry 1). The specific heat capacity means the amount of energy required to raise 1 gram of water 1o C. The enthalpy change of combustion is when 1 mole of substance reacts completely with oxygen under standard conditions. Apparatus: > Small copper can which acts as a calorimeter, (base diameter 10cm). > 0-1100C thermometer > 100cm3 measuring cylinder > Spirit burners containing -methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol and butan-1-ol. > Access to a weighing balance (2 d.p) > Draught shields Method: > Use 200 cm3 of cold water in a copper calorimeter and record its temperature. Measure the water volume using a burette because this as the smallest percentage error, of 0.175%. > Support the calorimeter over a spirit burner containing the fuel you are testing by using a clamp stand. ...read more.

Middle

Treatment of results The results that will be gathered will be tabulated. Convert the volume of water to a mass by using the known density of water (1000 cm3 = 1000 gram). An average will be calculated making sure anomalies are left out. Then a calculation of the enthalpy change of combustion will be calculated using the formula. These will then be compared with the text book enthalpy change of combustion figures that have been obtained from Royal Society of Chemistry Electronic Databook 2002. Methanol = CH3OH, the enthalpy change of combustion = -726.0 kJ mol-1. Ethanol = CH3CH2OH, the enthalpy change of combustion = -1367.3 kJ mol-1 Propan-1-ol = CH3CH2CH2OH, the enthalpy change of combustion = -2021.0 kJ mol-1 Butan-1-ol = CH3(CH2)2CH2OH, the enthalpy change of combustion = -2675 kJ mol-1 Limitations The same equipment will be used for each experiment. The only things that will be changed are the two different types of fuels, along with the spirit burners that contain them. The room temperature cannot be changed easily. The room temperature is not significant to the outcome of the results. The starting temperature of the water is more important. The experiments could all be done on the same day to reduce temperature errors. The loss fuel cannot be stopped totally so when doing the experiment it is best to put the lids on the burners when they are not lit and measuring the mass of the burners as soon as they have finished heating the water. ...read more.

Conclusion

> If spilt onto clothes or skin, then remove the contaminated clothing and wash the affected area > If spilt tin the laboratory then shut off all sources of ignition, open all windows and apply a mineral absorbent to the spill, then scoop into a bucket and add water Preliminary Results Preliminary work will be done to find out the problems that could occur and how they can be fixed. Preliminary work was obtained from the salter activity sheet DFI.2. During the preliminary work only one fuels will be tested. Methanol will be tested, as this is more volatile. Finding out where to hold the thermometer and where to stir in the calorimeter will also be achieved. Along with the distance of the flame to the calorimeter. This is important because it will reduce energy loss if the space between the calorimeter and the burner is narrowed. Making sure that the variables are within a measurable range will also be checked. By using 200cm3 of water it can be found out if it is too much or too little. Timing the experiment will also be done to see if the temperature rises to quickly so that the results cannot be taken down, or if it rises too slowly so that it takes to long to do 5 experiments for each fuel. The results of the preliminary work will be analysed and if it necessary the method could be changed. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Organic Chemistry essays

  1. Burning Fuels - Fuels are substances that release energy when they react with oxygen. ...

    Fish and other water life cannot survive in acidic lakes. Acid rain also accelerates the corrosion of metals and stonework on buildings. Often wind blows acidic rain clouds hundreds of miles away from the source of the pollution before acid rain actually falls.

  2. Comparing the enthalpy changes of combustion of different alcohols.

    The actual value is -1367 KJ mol -1 This graph further proves the relationship between the number of carbon atoms and the enthalpy change of combustion. I will now construct a graph comparing the results that I obtained through my experiment and the results obtained from a data book.

  1. Investigate the enthalpy change of different alcohol

    reacting, even though the number of moles of oxygen molecules may not be a whole number. Propan-1-ol C3H7OH (g) + 4 1/2O2� 3CO2 (g) + 4H2O (g) Butan-1-ol C4H9OH (g) + 6O2 � 4CO2 (g) + 5H2O (g) Butan-2-ol C4H9OH (g)

  2. Comparing fuels

    I need to do the experiment in a more controlled area, with no windows and an area that is maybe the same temperature all around. I also didn't think about the fact that at higher temperatures, heat is lost faster to the air and out of the beaker (diffusion), due to the bigger heat difference.

  1. Energy Transfer in Fuels

    Then I will take the initial mass of the fuel, and record it. After this I will measure the initial temperature of the water, which I suspect will be at room temperature of around 27-28?C. Then I light the wick of the paraffin burner and make sure the tip of the flame is touching the bottom of the beaker.

  2. 'Enthalpy of Combustion'.

    Then this would be multiplied by the molecular mass to give me the energy produced by one mole. Diagram Equipment List Spirit Burner and cap containing a liquid alcohol (Ethanol, Methanol, Propan-1-ol, Butan-1-ol, Pentan-1-ol, and Octan-1-ol) Heat Proof Mat Clamp Stand Clamp Calorimeter Thermometer (0 - 110�C)

  1. The Energy Content Of Different Fuels

    Therefore, the prediction is = -3026 / 2 = -1513 kjmol-1 Butanol: Butanol + Oxygen = Carbon dioxide + water C4H9OH + 6O2 = 4CO2 + 5H2O On the left-hand side of the equation: 9 x C-H (413 kjmol-1) 3 x C-C (347 kjmol-1)

  2. GCSE Chemistry Revision Notes - everything!

    Do not conduct electricity. Giant structure (e.g. silicon dioxide) Solids. High melting points. Insoluble in water and organic solvents. Do not conduct electricity. Metallic Giant structure (e.g. copper) Solids. High density (ions closely packed). Good electrical conductors (free electrons). Ionic compounds such as NaCl and MgO have high melting points and high boiling points because of strong electrostatic forces between ions.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work