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To measure the energy released by a series of alcohols.

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Introduction

Bashori Rahman 10T Chemistry Coursework Aim: - To measure the energy released by a series of alcohols. Equipment: - 6 different alcohols - Matches - Clamp + clamp stand - Measuring cylinder - Tin can - Weighing scales - Thermometer Research: Water and carbon dioxide is formed when the alcohol reacts with oxygen in the air. Heat energy is released when new bonds are formed between the water and carbon dioxide molecules. Risk assessments: - Alcohols are very dangerous and highly flammable so I must be careful when using them. The lids must be secure at all times. - Safety goggles must be worn at all times throughout the experiment. - All loose items must be tucked away, e.g. shirts and ties. Method: - Measure 50cm� of water and put it in the tin can. - Clamp the tin onto a clamp stand. - Record the starting temperature of the water. - Weigh the alcohol. - Put the chosen alcohol under the tin allowing the flame to just touch the bottom. ...read more.

Middle

200.63 200.11 0.52 21 51 30 1. Propanol 199.3 198.25 1.05 26 55 29 2. 198.25 198.14 0.11 25 55 30 3. 198.14 197.62 0.52 24 55 31 1. Butanol 221.66 221.03 0.63 20 52 36 2. 221.03 220.54 0.49 20 54 34 3. 220.54 219.88 0.66 20 55 35 1. Pentanol 203.91 203.48 0.43 20 55 35 2. 203.48 203.09 0.39 20 50 30 3. 203.09 202.61 0.48 19 49 30 1. Hexanol 242.32 241.73 0.59 25 55 30 2. 241.73 240.81 0.92 24 55 31 3 240.81 239.14 1.07 25 55 30 1. Heptanol 239.43 238.73 0.7 20 55 35 2. 238.73 238.55 0.18 20 55 35 3. 238.55 238.4 0.15 20 55 35 1. Octanol (2nd attempt started with a new bottle) 218.04 216.9 1.14 24 58 34 2. 221.76 220.36 1.4 19 55 36 3. 220.36 219.33 1.03 21 58 37 To calculate the average energy per gram we used the following equation: Energy = Mass x 4.2 x change in temperature Fuel Number of carbon atoms Textbook results My results Methanol 1 22,700 Ethanol 2 29,700 29400.6 Propanol 3 33,600 ...read more.

Conclusion

would have absorbed some of this heat. The fact that the alcohols all had different size wicks add to the fact that the flame may not always have been directly touching the bottom of the tin can therefore it would take slightly longer to heat up. It was very difficult to carry out a perfect experiment in a classroom because there are so many different ways of losing heat. Windows and doors may have been open making it even easier for heat to escape quickly. If there is a low oxygen supply, it is possible that some carbon atoms will be let out before getting a chance to bond with any oxygen atoms forming a substance called soot. To prevent this I would have to make sure there is a proper oxygen supply. To improve this experiment I would simply try to carry it out under better conditions where as little heat will be lost as possible. This is one possible way of constructing the experiment : If I managed to do the experiment this way I would think that the results would turn out similar to the textbook results. ...read more.

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