• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To organise 5 given metals into a reactivity series using 0.2 M Copper (II) Sulphate Solution.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

A SHORT REACTIVITY SERIES Aim: To organise 5 given metals into a reactivity series using 0.2 M Copper (II) Sulphate Solution. Safety: Before we can even begin, utmost precautions must be taken when it comes to safety. We will ensure that all things that aren't absolutely necessary are cleared of the bench and placed underneath it, so as to ensure that no one can trip over them. Shirts will be tucked in to prevent any mishaps, and we will be wearing safety goggles, to prevent anything from getting in our eyes. Throughout the entire investigation we will be standing up, to make sure that if there is any major problem on the bench, we will be in a position to do something about it. We will also have to take precautions when it comes to a metal like calcium. Since it can react with water on skin, we must make sure that it does not come into contact with any part of our body. Plan: To be able to produce our reactivity series, we must make use of the fact that a more reactive metal will displace a less reactive metal from its salt solution. When this happens, heat energy is released as the reaction is an exothermic one. The greater the difference in reactivity between the two metals, the more energy released. This fact allows us to measure the temperature rise and judge from that which metals are the most reactive and which the least. The reactivity series is a table of metals with the most reactive metals at the top of the table and the least reactive metals at the bottom. Since I only have 500cm3 of 0.2 molar Copper (II) Sulphate solution and 5 metals, I have decided to test each metals 4 times using 25cm3 of Copper (II) Sulphate solution each time. This maximises the use of the Copper Sulphate Solution. ...read more.

Middle

For example, if we were testing magnesium, then we would measure out 0.096g of magnesium on the top pan balance and add it to the copper sulphate solution and shake the cup gently, all the while looking reading off the thermometer. Every thirty seconds we will note down the temperature achieved by the metal reacting with copper sulphate solution. We will test each metal for four minutes with 4 attempts. This will allow us to get a good spread of readings. Every time we finish one attempt of a metal, we will wash out and dry the cup and do the experiment again in the same cup. After we have the complete readings for each metal within a table, we will find the maximum temperature achieved from each attempt and put it in a table along with all the other metals. Form here we can then go on to find the maximum temperature rise achieved in each attempt by taking the maximum temperature away from the baseline temperature of the copper sulphate and the take an average maximum rise in temperature for each metal. PREDICITION: I predict that the reactivity series for those 5 metals will look like this: Calcium Magnesium Zinc Iron Copper The reason for my putting copper at the bottom of the reactivity series is obvious. Copper is not likely to react with its own salt solution (Copper (II) Sulphate) From previous experiments, we have seen that when calcium reacts with cold water the reaction can be described as vigorous, fizzing and giving off hydrogen gas. The same can be said for when calcium reacts with dilute acid. It is because of these two facts that I have placed calcium at the top of my reactivity series. Previous investigations have also shown that magnesium will not react with cold water, but it will react with steam to produce magnesium oxide and hydrogen gas. ...read more.

Conclusion

The ionic bond between the magnesium ion and the sulphate group is made. The copper ions must gain electrons and make metallic bonds with each other to become the black solid. These changes give out energy, too. In this reaction, the amount of energy taken in by the bonds being broken is less than the energy given out by the bonds being made. So on balance we see energy being given out as heat. It is an exothermic reaction. Every reaction involves energy changes. In order for a reaction to take place old bonds need to be broken and new bonds need to be formed. This involves energy. To break bonds, energy is needed. This is why many reactions need to be heated to get them started. Those that happen at room temperature are still using the heat from the surroundings to get started, they just don't need as much. The process of breaking bonds is endothermic (needs heat). When bonds are made, energy is released. This is an exothermic reaction (heat is given out). In the reaction you describe, the zinc is more reactive than the copper. As a result, it acts a bit like a bully, demanding that the copper give it the sulphate ions. Energy is needed to break the bonds between the copper ions and the sulphate ions. When the zinc bonds to the sulphate ions, energy is given out. The more zinc that is there, the more 'demanding' it is because every zinc ion wants to bond with a sulphate ion and so they are competing with each other as well as with the copper. A displacement reaction is an example of a redox reaction. In a redox reaction one reactant loses electrons (oxidation) while the other gains the electrons (reduction). For example zinc metal will displace copper ions from solution because zinc is higher than copper in the electrochemical series. Zinc ions and copper atoms (metal) are formed - the zinc atoms lose electrons while the copper ions gain the electrons. Zn � Zn2+ + 2e (oxidation) Cu2+ +2e � Cu (reduction) ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. Electronic spectroscopy - Homoleptic chromium(III) complexes and the spectrochemical series.

    The red-brown solid was then transferred to a 400cm3 beaker containing 40cm3 1M hydrochloric acid. The solution was stirred for 10 minutes, then filtered by gravity into an ice-cooled beaker. The yellow filtrate was cooled for 15 minutes and 40cm3 ice-cold concentrated hydrochloric acid was added.

  2. Investigating the Effects of Increasing Copper Sulphate Solution Concentrations on the Germination of Cress ...

    By mixing the solution as it is made, it means that the solutions will not have all the copper sulphate at the top or bottom, the whole thing will diffuse more quickly. This solution is at the natural level of copper sulphate that is found in the soil for cress seeds to germinate properly.

  1. To find out the 5 solutions by testing out the cations and anions.

    Method: Test for the anions Anion Test Test result Carbonate (CO32-) Add dilute acid Carbon dioxide produced Chloride (Cl-) (In solution) Acidify with dilute nitrate acid, then add aqueous silver nitrate White precipitate Iodide (I-) (In solution) Acidify with dilute nitrate acid, then add aqueous lead(II)

  2. Enthalpy changes on displacement and the reactivity series.

    = 25 = 0.384 moles RMM 65 I will also record the initial and final temperatures of the solution and then re-weigh it. I will then process the results that I obtain by firstly using the formulae M*C* T, which will give me the energy gained by copper sulphate, this is given in joules.

  1. The Rates of Reaction of Metals with Acid.

    Type of Acid Molecular Formula Basicity Level Hydrochloric HCl Mono Sulphuric H2SO4 Di Phosphoric H3PO4 Tri Ethanoic CH3CO2H Mono (organic acid) Before starting the preliminary experimental work, Firstly, I had to find what amount of reactants kept the acids in excess.

  2. Investigating for Cations and Anions.

    * I couldn't measure the amounts accurately as we didn't have measuring cylinders, because another class was using it for their experiment. * The accuracy of this experiment wasn't very high because we didn't know the amount of solutions to use.

  1. Extracting copper from Malachite.

    * Thirdly, while I was separating the Copper from its waste, some of the Copper might have been thrown down the drain while I was throwing away the dirty water until I could see the Pink copper at the bottom of the test tube.

  2. Transition metals

    Titanium has a very high melting point. Titanium is non-toxic. Titanium was named in 1795 by a German chemist, after the Titans of Greek mythology who were very strong. Its symbol is Ti. Titanium dioxide is one of the whitest, brightest substances known.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work