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To plan an experiment to investigate the effect of concentration on the initial rate of reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid.

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Introduction

AIM: To plan an experiment to investigate the effect of concentration on the initial rate of reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid. Carbonate + Acid --> Chemical Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric Acid --> Calcium Chloride + Water + Carbon Dioxide CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) --> CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) reactants products Rate of reaction is how much reactant (i.e. marble chips) is converted to product per unit of time. We can't work out the rate of reaction from a chemical equation. Equations can only tell us how much product we can get. They don't say how quickly it is made. We can only find the rate by actually doing experiments. During a reaction we can measure how much reactant is used up in a certain time. On the other hand, we can also measure how much product is formed in a certain time. In order to investigate this I am going to do several experiments in which I vary the concentration of the Hydrochloric acid. Each experiment I do will last 2 minutes and I will take readings every 10 seconds. I shall use the data I collect to make graphs to enable me to compare and evaluate my data fully. ...read more.

Middle

At the end of the reaction the catalyst is chemically unchanged. Catalysts increase the rate of a reaction by helping break chemical bonds in reactant molecules and provide a 'different pathway' for the reaction. This effectively means the Activation Energy is reduced. Look at the energy level diagram for the exothermic reaction (above left), once the reaction starts it provides the energy itself to keep the reaction going. Catalysts make it easier for particles to react, so therefore the rate of reaction increases. I have decided to leave out the involvement of a catalyst as it might interfere with the set-up of the reaction and leave me unable to tell what caused the increase or decrease in the rate of reaction (the catalyst or the concentration of Hydrochloric acid). EFFECT OF LIGHT. Light can effect particular reactions and act as a catalyst. As well as acting as an electromagnetic wave, light can be considered as energy "bullets" (called photons), which have sufficient "impact" to break chemical bonds - in the same way a catalyst does. Light can also cause particles to gain kinetic energy. This means that the particles have more energy that required for "activation energy" so more successful collisions will occur. EFFECT OF VOLUME. If you have an increased amount of volume there will be an increased amount of acid particles. ...read more.

Conclusion

With this in mind, I will create my solutions by following this table: CONCENTRATION HCl 2mdl-3 H20 Moles % 100 0 2 100 50 50 1 50 0 100 0 0 20 80 0.2 10 30 60 0.4 20 60 40 0.6 30 80 20 0.8 40 The figures highlighted in the blue refer to my experiment; the other figures demonstrate how the equations I used to figure out the other information referring to my experiment. PREDICTION GRAPH. This diagram represents what the graph would look like if I carried out the whole experiment. I have decided the graph looks like this, as we are collecting something (i.e. carbon dioxide) rather than losing something (i.e. mass) therefore the graph is positive. There will become a point where there is no more carbon dioxide given off, therefore it will continue in a straight line, as shown above. As I am only interested in the initial rate of reaction, it is the steeper part of the curve that I need to look at. See below left. I will find out the gradient of the initial parts of these curves and then plot these on another graph. See above right. This graph will prove my initial theory: As we increase the concentration, the rate of reaction increases. Chemistry Coursework 10D Dr. Dennis Francesca Tate 10H ...read more.

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