• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To plan an experiment to investigate the effect of concentration on the initial rate of reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

AIM: To plan an experiment to investigate the effect of concentration on the initial rate of reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid. Carbonate + Acid --> Chemical Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric Acid --> Calcium Chloride + Water + Carbon Dioxide CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) --> CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) reactants products Rate of reaction is how much reactant (i.e. marble chips) is converted to product per unit of time. We can't work out the rate of reaction from a chemical equation. Equations can only tell us how much product we can get. They don't say how quickly it is made. We can only find the rate by actually doing experiments. During a reaction we can measure how much reactant is used up in a certain time. On the other hand, we can also measure how much product is formed in a certain time. In order to investigate this I am going to do several experiments in which I vary the concentration of the Hydrochloric acid. Each experiment I do will last 2 minutes and I will take readings every 10 seconds. I shall use the data I collect to make graphs to enable me to compare and evaluate my data fully. ...read more.

Middle

At the end of the reaction the catalyst is chemically unchanged. Catalysts increase the rate of a reaction by helping break chemical bonds in reactant molecules and provide a 'different pathway' for the reaction. This effectively means the Activation Energy is reduced. Look at the energy level diagram for the exothermic reaction (above left), once the reaction starts it provides the energy itself to keep the reaction going. Catalysts make it easier for particles to react, so therefore the rate of reaction increases. I have decided to leave out the involvement of a catalyst as it might interfere with the set-up of the reaction and leave me unable to tell what caused the increase or decrease in the rate of reaction (the catalyst or the concentration of Hydrochloric acid). EFFECT OF LIGHT. Light can effect particular reactions and act as a catalyst. As well as acting as an electromagnetic wave, light can be considered as energy "bullets" (called photons), which have sufficient "impact" to break chemical bonds - in the same way a catalyst does. Light can also cause particles to gain kinetic energy. This means that the particles have more energy that required for "activation energy" so more successful collisions will occur. EFFECT OF VOLUME. If you have an increased amount of volume there will be an increased amount of acid particles. ...read more.

Conclusion

With this in mind, I will create my solutions by following this table: CONCENTRATION HCl 2mdl-3 H20 Moles % 100 0 2 100 50 50 1 50 0 100 0 0 20 80 0.2 10 30 60 0.4 20 60 40 0.6 30 80 20 0.8 40 The figures highlighted in the blue refer to my experiment; the other figures demonstrate how the equations I used to figure out the other information referring to my experiment. PREDICTION GRAPH. This diagram represents what the graph would look like if I carried out the whole experiment. I have decided the graph looks like this, as we are collecting something (i.e. carbon dioxide) rather than losing something (i.e. mass) therefore the graph is positive. There will become a point where there is no more carbon dioxide given off, therefore it will continue in a straight line, as shown above. As I am only interested in the initial rate of reaction, it is the steeper part of the curve that I need to look at. See below left. I will find out the gradient of the initial parts of these curves and then plot these on another graph. See above right. This graph will prove my initial theory: As we increase the concentration, the rate of reaction increases. Chemistry Coursework 10D Dr. Dennis Francesca Tate 10H ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium ...

    3 star(s)

    the higher the rate of reaction there will be. If the particles are given enough energy, they will collide with other particles and break their bonds, causing a reaction to occur. From the kinetic theory of gases in a reaction between two gases A&B, a molecule of 'A' must collide

  2. Measuring the Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate

    94 98 94 97 130 97 99 96 99 140 100 100 98 100 150 100 100 100 30 acid and 10 water Time in seconds Volume of Carbon Dioxide In cm� First Second Third Average 0 0 0 0 0 10 5 10 8 8 20 15 13 15

  1. THE EFFECT OF BILE SALT ON THE ACTION OF THE ENZYME LIPASE

    solution would result in an increase in the activity of the solution, thereby increasing the likelihood of collision between the different chemicals or reactants producing a more rapid reaction. This can be avoided in future experiments by carrying out the same number of stirs for each solution or using some

  2. Investigate how concentration of hydrochloric acid (HCL) affects its reaction with calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

    At 40 seconds on the 2 molar line 43cm3 gas has been produced. I can see that the effect of doubling the concentration more than doubles the rate of reaction. I can also prove this point by looking at the gradients.

  1. The Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Decomposition of Calcium Carbonate.

    I recorded the volume of gas collected in the gas syringe every ten seconds. I recorded it every ten seconds in order to get an accurate rate of reaction throughout the experiment. During the experiment I kept the Hydrochloric acid and water the same temperature as not to introduce another

  2. Investigate the effect of changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid and the volume of ...

    the surface area of the marble chips is increased then the rate of reaction will increase because there is more space on the surface of the chips for the hydrochloric acid to react with. I will ensure that this is kept constant by using the same marble chips where possible.

  1. Investigating the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate

    acid is 27seconds whereas when there is less concentration the longer it takes for the particles to react because there is less energy. in my investigation using this particular method of timing how long it took for the solid to disappear was effective because we couldn't time how long it

  2. An Investigation: Factors That Affect The Rate Of Reaction between Calcium carbonate and Hydrochloric ...

    large and medium chips release almost the same amount of carbon dioxide. This means that both the differences between large and medium are insignificant. as the range bars overlap. Conclusion for surface area In the surface area there was more area available for collisions to take place.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work