• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To plan an experiment to investigate the effect of concentration on the initial rate of reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

AIM: To plan an experiment to investigate the effect of concentration on the initial rate of reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid. Carbonate + Acid --> Chemical Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric Acid --> Calcium Chloride + Water + Carbon Dioxide CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) --> CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) reactants products Rate of reaction is how much reactant (i.e. marble chips) is converted to product per unit of time. We can't work out the rate of reaction from a chemical equation. Equations can only tell us how much product we can get. They don't say how quickly it is made. We can only find the rate by actually doing experiments. During a reaction we can measure how much reactant is used up in a certain time. On the other hand, we can also measure how much product is formed in a certain time. In order to investigate this I am going to do several experiments in which I vary the concentration of the Hydrochloric acid. Each experiment I do will last 2 minutes and I will take readings every 10 seconds. I shall use the data I collect to make graphs to enable me to compare and evaluate my data fully. ...read more.

Middle

At the end of the reaction the catalyst is chemically unchanged. Catalysts increase the rate of a reaction by helping break chemical bonds in reactant molecules and provide a 'different pathway' for the reaction. This effectively means the Activation Energy is reduced. Look at the energy level diagram for the exothermic reaction (above left), once the reaction starts it provides the energy itself to keep the reaction going. Catalysts make it easier for particles to react, so therefore the rate of reaction increases. I have decided to leave out the involvement of a catalyst as it might interfere with the set-up of the reaction and leave me unable to tell what caused the increase or decrease in the rate of reaction (the catalyst or the concentration of Hydrochloric acid). EFFECT OF LIGHT. Light can effect particular reactions and act as a catalyst. As well as acting as an electromagnetic wave, light can be considered as energy "bullets" (called photons), which have sufficient "impact" to break chemical bonds - in the same way a catalyst does. Light can also cause particles to gain kinetic energy. This means that the particles have more energy that required for "activation energy" so more successful collisions will occur. EFFECT OF VOLUME. If you have an increased amount of volume there will be an increased amount of acid particles. ...read more.

Conclusion

With this in mind, I will create my solutions by following this table: CONCENTRATION HCl 2mdl-3 H20 Moles % 100 0 2 100 50 50 1 50 0 100 0 0 20 80 0.2 10 30 60 0.4 20 60 40 0.6 30 80 20 0.8 40 The figures highlighted in the blue refer to my experiment; the other figures demonstrate how the equations I used to figure out the other information referring to my experiment. PREDICTION GRAPH. This diagram represents what the graph would look like if I carried out the whole experiment. I have decided the graph looks like this, as we are collecting something (i.e. carbon dioxide) rather than losing something (i.e. mass) therefore the graph is positive. There will become a point where there is no more carbon dioxide given off, therefore it will continue in a straight line, as shown above. As I am only interested in the initial rate of reaction, it is the steeper part of the curve that I need to look at. See below left. I will find out the gradient of the initial parts of these curves and then plot these on another graph. See above right. This graph will prove my initial theory: As we increase the concentration, the rate of reaction increases. Chemistry Coursework 10D Dr. Dennis Francesca Tate 10H ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium ...

    3 star(s)

    a reaction occurs and what effects they would have on this experiment: - Temperature- The higher the temperature the more energy each particle will have which means it will vibrate more, causing the amount of collisions to increase. If the particles collide more, the rate of reaction is increased.

  2. Measuring the Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate

    However, the volume of hydrochloric acid and water used will alter with each experiment. PART B: OBTAINING EVIDENCE Experiment one - 40cm� of acid and 0cm� of distilled water and 1g of small calcium carbonate chips I carried out the experiment as explained before - I used a gas syringe,

  1. Investigate the effect of changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid and the volume of ...

    I then put the clamp stand into the sink, and put the water trough on the base of the stand. I then put took a measuring cylinder and filled it up with water. This measuring cylinder was then placed upturned into the water trough carefully so as not to let any air into the measuring cylinder and so cause inaccuracies.

  2. Investigate how concentration of hydrochloric acid (HCL) affects its reaction with calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

    was not too fast. The measurements I will therefore use for my main method will be: Mass of CaCO3 (g) 1.4 Size of Chip (L, M, S) S Volume of Acid (cm3) 50 These measurements look very good. Using a mass of 1.4g for the chips will be economical.

  1. THE EFFECT OF BILE SALT ON THE ACTION OF THE ENZYME LIPASE

    Paired t-test The reason for why I will carry out my paired t-test is to further support my hypothesis. Furthermore, this will allow me to see how reliable my average drop in pH level is (table 8), and also whether or not my rate of reaction or gradient of the concentrations is accurate (table 9).

  2. Experiment to investigate how changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of ...

    acid + 17ml of distilled water = 100ml of 2.5M 3 Provided Apparatus List * At least 15 cylinders of chalk * A beaker * A 200ml graduated cylinder * Stop watch * Hydrochloric acid ( 2M and 3M) * Funnel * Dilute water * Balance with readings to 2

  1. Investigating the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate

    I am confident that my conclusion is reliable to a respectable extent but in order for me to strongly agree with my experiment I need to be able to take a variety of readings also instead of timing the reaction until its finished when I use this method I will

  2. An Investigation: Factors That Affect The Rate Of Reaction between Calcium carbonate and Hydrochloric ...

    When I increase the concentration of calcium carbonate to 1m the amount of carbon dioxide is being increased rapidly between 10 seconds of a volume of 5ml and 120 seconds of a volume of 71ml at a range of 66.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work