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To see how fast magnesium reacts in different molarities of Hydrochloric Acid.

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Introduction

Wajeesha Fernando 11.4 Rates of Reaction Aim: - To see how fast magnesium reacts in different molarities of Hydrochloric Acid. Prediction: - My prediction is that the higher the concentration of the acid, the faster the magnesium strips will dissolve. The higher the concentration means, the more Hydrochloric acid particles for Magnesium particles to react with, increasing the chance of successful collision. Apparatus: - Safe and Fair test Safe To ensure that our experiment is safe, one of the first procedures that took place before starting the experiment was to wear goggles. This way our eyes were protected against any HCL acid. While doing the experiment, we made sure that if we spill any acid on ourselves to wash it away under cold water immediately, to stop getting burned. We always kept the lid of the HCL acid bottle closed, in case of a spill. We also kept our ties out of reach of any acid, and had our hair tied back. Fair We used the same volume of acid for the first and the second experiments. We ensured that we used same sizes of Mg strip and the same stop watch for both experiments. We repeated each concentrated reaction more than once, (twice each in the first experiment and three times in the second experiment). We put both the acid and water at the same time in the second experiment, and placed the Mg strip afterwards to make certain that the reaction hadn't started only with the HCL acid or water. ...read more.

Middle

Temperature gives particles 'kinetic energy'. This means they will move faster and will collide faster with other particles. Catalysts enable substances to break up and form bonds easily. The atoms need less energy and the catalyst remain unchanged and can be re-used. The only factor that was imperative to the experiment we have done was the concentration of the acid. This will increase the number of particles present and will increase the chance of collision between them. Solids have a high density, volume and a definite shape. They are usually tightly packed together and have high inter-molecular forces holding them. They are arranged in a certain pattern. These particles are unable to move around from place to place. But they are able to vibrate, and kinetic energy (usually from heat) enable them to do so, and sometimes even break apart if the level of energy is high. This information is relevant to my experiment because the Magnesium strip is a solid whilst the Hydrochloric acid is a liquid. Liquids have more kinetic energy as the bonds between its particles are weaker than the solid's, allowing them to move about. Because of this ability Hydrochloric acid is able to break into the Magnesium solid and weaken its forces. There is activation energy to start the process; this initial amount of energy is what is required to start breaking the bonds to allow the reaction to proceed. This energy along with the high concentration starts off the experiment, allowing the particles to react with each other. ...read more.

Conclusion

The time taken for the 2ml of HCL and 18ml of water, ranged from 49 minutes to 51 minutes. The reaction was extremely slow; this meant that one of us (my colleagues and I) had to stay beside the experiment, examining it carefully to make sure that the Mg strip hasn't dissolved without us knowing. Even though the time difference between 4ml and 2ml is very large, it clearly shows the variation between solvent with a high concentration, and the same solvent with a low concentration. The possible reason for such high timing could be because that we have measured that acids or liquids incorrectly, or because the sizes of the Mg strips were not the accurate size. I think we could have improved our experiment by spending more time ensuring that we have the correct equipment, and measuring the solvents. Instead of using test tubes to measure the solvents, we could have used syringes, as they are more accurate and effective. In some of the concentrations, we made mistakes such as pressing the start button on stop watch few seconds delayed; we could have avoided these problems if we were better prepared. I could also extend my investigation by using various other acids, such as Sulphuric acid (H2SO4), Nitric acid (HNO3), etc. Overall, I am happy with the results, although we could have done better, HCL acid volumes Water volume 1/t 20ml 0ml 2.70 18ml 2ml 1.89 16ml 4ml 0.40 14ml 6ml 0.32 12ml 8ml 0.32 10ml 10ml 0.25 8ml 12ml 0.06 6ml 14ml 0.05 4ml 16ml 0.03 2ml 18ml 0.02 0ml 20ml 0.00 Table showing 1/t ...read more.

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