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To study the factors which will effect the rate of reaction between Calcium carbonate (marble chips) and Hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Jessica Scott 5S. To study the factors which will effect the rate of reaction between Calcium carbonate (marble chips) and Hydrochloric acid. Skill Area P: Aim: To study the factors which will effect the rate of reaction between Calcium carbonate (marble chips) and hydrochloric acid. Factors which will effect the rate of reaction: - concentration - temperature - surface area - catalyst (there are none for this experiment) The student has chosen to use concentration as the only variable for this experiment. Prediction. The student predicts that the more hydrochloric acid that is used, the faster the rate of reaction will be. This is due to the fact that when there is a higher concentration of acid being tested, there are more molecules in the solution and there will be more collisions of these molecules. Due to this there will be more chances of successful collisions and the rate of reaction will be quicker than if the concentration of the solution was small as this would mean there would not be as many molecules to collide making it less likely that the collisions will be successful and making the rate of reaction slower. Low concentration (the reaction is slow due to there being less movement therefore less colliding molecules in the solution.) High concentration (the reaction is fast due to there being more molecules moving in the solution therefore there are more molecules colliding with each other and the reaction becomes faster.) ...read more.

Middle

- Wash hands when the experiment is over. - Do not run or eat in the lab. Results: Repeat 1: Concentration (M) 2.0M 0.4M 1.0M 1.6M 1.2M Measurements cm3 Time (seconds) Time (seconds) Time (Seconds) Time (seconds) Time (seconds) 10 19 81 15 5 15 20 22 124 29 8 25 30 24 163 38 13 35 40 26 200 49 16 41 50 27 211 55 19 46 60 32 255 62 22 52 70 34 274 68 25 57 80 38 326 70 28 63 90 41 373 75 31 70 100 44 427 80 33 73 110 47 507 85 37 74 120 49 555 91 40 78 130 53 631 120 43 81 140 55 753 124 45 85 150 60 928 130 49 90 160 63 1165 136 52 94 170 66 142 56 121 180 71 149 59 126 190 75 155 62 131 Repeat 2: Concentration (M) 2.0M 0.4M 1.0M 1.6M 1.2M Measurements (cm3) Time (seconds) Time (Seconds) Time (seconds) Time (Seconds) Time (Seconds) 10 11 66 15 17 10 20 14 120 24 18 17 30 18 143 35 20 26 40 22 189 42 24 34 50 25 256 48 28 40 60 28 275 54 31 47 70 32 325 60 36 53 80 34 371 66 42 60 90 38 425 74 51 66 100 41 501 79 61 73 110 44 551 85 66 83 120 46 628 92 74 90 130 49 749 99 82 97 ...read more.

Conclusion

This would ensure that the concentration of acid is always constant. - When filling the measuring cylinder, to make sure no bubbles of air get trapped a sheet of plastic should be used to cover the top when filling it instead of your hand which lets water through it. - A very clearly marked cylinder should be used as the reaction was sometimes too fast to get an accurate reading off of the poorly marked cylinder. - When the marble chips are washed, they should all be bone dry before they are weighed and used in the experiment. This would ensure that the weights are exact. - Although medium marble chips were used, they did not all have the same surface area. This meant that some were more prone to successful collisions than others. This could be solved by choosing marble ships of the same shape and size. Further Work: If we went on to investigate more about the rates of reactions we could choose a different variable for example temperature. We could keep the concentration constant and heat the solution to different temperatures to find out if heat increases the rate of reaction. The same apparatus could be used except you would need a Bunsen burner instead of all the different concentrations of solution. I could already make a prediction using knowledge from the previous experiment that the hotter the solution becomes, the faster the rate of reaction will be. This is due to heat making particles move more quickly, causing more collisions, more successful collisions, and a faster rate of reaction. ...read more.

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