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To work out the concentration of a substance from the heat energy of neutralisation.

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Introduction

To work out the concentration of a substance from the heat energy of neutralisation. In this test we are going to be putting alkali and acid together,We obviously know that it creates a reaction and when something reacts it creates heat.So I think that the results will be that with an equal amount of acids(25cm3) and alkali(25cm3)there will be the most heat rise.from this we can work out the concentration by the equation N=(hcl)= c x v 1000 =2 x V (v will come from the graph) 1000 = N x 1000 C By predicting myself now what will happen without using the equation-The biggest reaction will come from the acid and alkali with equal amounts which will produce the most heat Safety: The experiment will include a Bunsen burner which can obviously burn and particularly strong acid and alkali which can burn especially the acis,Alkali can irritate the skin.The first thing to put on should be the goggles as our eyes are then protected before we even come into contact with the acid etc. Bags should be placed under the tables out of anyone's way so no one trips up and all loose clothing to be removed or tied back e.g. ...read more.

Middle

The resulting solution is neutral--that is, neither acidic nor alkaline. The positive hydrogen ions of the acid are neutralized by the negative ions from the base. A neutral solution has a pH of 7,This means that the result we get from our experiment should be of PH7 and should not be acid or alkali,If the result we get behind is of a higher or lower PH7 then obviously the heat gain will not be highest and there is more alkali than acid and vice versa. Obtaining- After the experiment finished I finally managed to get a table and a graph completed- Volume of acid Volume of alkali temperature (C) Average 1. 2. 3. 0 50 5 45 21c 22c 21c 21c 10 40 25 25 25 25 15 35 27 26 26 26 20 30 29 29 29 29 25 25 31 31 31 31 30 20 29 29 29 29 35 15 27 27 26 27 40 10 24 23 24 24 45 5 19 19 19 19 50 0 During this experiment I used- 1.Beret 2.beakers 3.Polysyreine cups 4.Thermometer I have used the buret and thermometer for accuracy,It is important that I get the most accurate result from the test to make... ...read more.

Conclusion

worked like I predicted it would.There were no anomalous results and all results were very accurate I think I chose the best method for working out the concentration otherwise there could be some freak results etc.Allthough my method was not very safe as it meant keeping a lot of alkali and acids lying around at the workbench which could lead to an accident.But I believe chose the method that would give me the most accurate results.I believe I could have improved my results in many ways,The first being that many times during the experiment I was distracted by other people and not watching my work so I think I could have improved my results by taking more care.The second being safety,I spilled my acid on three occasions which could have been deadly luckily I cleaned it up and no one got hurt.I could have also cleaned up better and cleaned my apparatus up better this would have lead to better results.I believe doing this could have helped a lot in this experiment.Overall I thikn the experiment was a success an I think in some ways I could of done better but in other ways I performed to the best of my ability. ...read more.

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