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# Trolley Mass and Gravitational Field Strength Investigation

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Introduction

Mechanics Trolley Mass and Gravitational Field Strength Investigation Scientific ideas The higher you put the slope the steeper it becomes and the steeper it becomes the more energy are gained by the trolley. There are two types of energy gained 1: Potential energy Potential energy is the energy that a system has because of its position or state. In other words how fast the trolley can go. 2: Kinetic energy Kinetic energy is the energy an object has from its motion. An object of mass m moving with a speed v will have kinetic energy. Potential energy is calculated by an equation Mass � Gravitational field strength � Height m � g � h Kinetic energy is calculated by an equation Half � Mass � Velocity � m � v2 As the height of the slope is increased so is the potential energy because the steeper the slope is the stronger the gravitational field strength is and that is what pulls the trolley down. The speed is also increased because if more potential energy is gained and it is used faster. Gravitational force acts on the trolley, which makes the trolley, go downwards. As the ramp is raised, the trolley moves faster to the ground. The potential energy is converted into kinetic energy as the trolley is let go off. Not all the potential energy is converted into kinetic energy because some of it is converted into heat because of air resistance. Air resistance is a force, which acts as a resistance to the trolley. There are two things, which can change the amount of kinetic energy, and potential energy there is in the trolley and they are height and mass. The potential energy is converted into kinetic energy so what ever increases the potential energy will increase the kinetic energy. As the height is increased, so does the potential energy because the gravitational field strength has more effect on a trolley, which is on a steeper slope. ...read more.

Middle

I felt no need to repeat my results because I saw a pattern I think that for a better accuracy I should have used more results to have a longer range of results, which would have lead to a more accurate average. I think that there was a part of the experiment was inaccurate and that was due to hand/eye judgement. During the experiment, one of the members of the group had to measure how long it took for the trolley to get to the finishing line. I think that a mistake was made because the three results should have been with only a distance of 0.10 away from each other but as you can see on my results, table on the height of 10 cm the difference between test 1 and test 2 was 0.33 seconds. To improve this situation I think that we could have used a light gate because it would have given us results that are more accurate and would have been much faster. Also a way to have improve the accuracy is to shorten the run off distance because if the run off distance is more shorter then the trolley would net be able to reach to it's fastest speed and would be slower. If the trolley is slower then the person who is measuring the time with the stopwatch will be able to press the button to start and stop more accurately. He/she will be able to see when the trolley fully touches the floor until the trolley is fully over the line. The reason I repeated the test for the same height 3 times was for an average. The reason I want to get an average is because if test 1 for 10 cm goes wrong I will still have test 2 and test 3 which would bring the number more closer to what the number should be. ...read more.

Conclusion

the gravitational potential energy which gave the trolley more potential energy which means more kinetic energy leading to an increase in speed. This is why when you work out the potential energy, height is involved because you have to times the height by the gravitational pull which is 10 and the higher the height is the higher your answer will be which means the potential energy will be higher. In my prediction I predicted that the higher the slope the faster the velocity of the trolley. Because the trolley will have an increased amount of kinetic energy due to higher potential energy and as you can see from graph 1 it clearly shows that as the height is increased so does the speed of the trolley. Also in my prediction I predicted that the lower the slope was the slower the trolley will be and as you can see from my results table and graph 1 this proves my prediction to be correct. The reason for this was because as the height of the slope decreased so that it's potential energy, which meant that there was less energy converted to kinetic energy. The reason why the height affects the average speed of the trolley is because as the height is increased of the trolley so does its potential energy. This means that there is more energy, which is converted in to kinetic energy resulting to the trolley coming to a faster speed. Also I predicted that as the height of the slope is increased so will the energy being lost. As you can see from my calculations and my graph 3 the prediction was correct. The reason for this was because as the speed of the trolley increased the resistance, which was friction and air resistance, increased. This is because as the trolley gains more energy it becomes faster and that increases the friction and air resistance, which means that, more energy is lost because friction is working against the trolley with greater force. ...read more.

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