• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Trolly Experiment

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Data Analysis Coursework

I am going to investigate the relationship between the velocity of a moving object, and the distance it travels down a ramp, using secondary data obtained by a class experiment.

image00.png

The apparatus was set up as shown above and illustrates a runaway vehicle down a hill. The light gate was placed at several points along the slope and measured the velocity of the card passing through it.

The trolley, of mass 1000g (1kg), was released 126cm up the slope from front of the card. The palm top then measured the time it took for the whole piece of card to pass through the light gate.

Once this was done the light gate was moved down the slope by 10cm at a time and again recorded the time it took for the card to pass through the light gate. This was carried out for 8 different locations. Each location’s time was repeated to end up with 3 readings. The average of these could then be taken and used as the time it took for the card to pass through the light gate.

To reduce the fiction of the wheel axis on the trolley, I have sprayed it with a lubricant (WD40).

The results I have been given are as follows:

Distance to Light Gate (m)

Velocity (m/s)

1st go

2nd go

3rd go

Mean Velocity

0.8

0.565

0.556

0.556

0.559

0.7

0.532

0.518

0.525

0.525

0.6

0.487

0.484

0.481

0.484

0.5

0.449

0.436

0.437

0.441

0.4

0.395

0.390

0.393

0.393

0.3

0.339

0.338

0.339

0.339

0.2

0.277

0.277

0.274

0.276

0.1

0.186

0.191

0.190

0.189

I have decided to make a preliminary graph to show my expected results.

image05.png

The graph above shows that as the slope distance increases the velocity of the trolley must increase.

...read more.

Middle

As well as this I can use Newton’s Second Law to Model the Particle, in order to find out friction etc.

Newton’s second law states, ‘The Force, F, applied to a particle is proportional to the mass, m, of the particle and the acceleration produced.’

This can then be represented by the equation F = ma.

In order to model the trolley I must know the acceleration. I will therefore use the SUVAT equations first.

Firstly, I shall work out is the time that the trolley took to reach the light gate by rearranging the equation:

                s = ½ (v + u)t

Therefore         2s = (v + u)t

                t = 2s / v                        (as initial velocity is always zero)

Therefore for the 0.1m light gate the trolley takes:

                t = 0.2 / 0.189

                t = 1.06s

I can now do this for all the other light gate positions also.

I can now work out the acceleration of the trolley through the light gate by using the formula:

                a = (v – u) / t

For the 0.1m light gate:

                a = 0.189 / 1.06 (because u = 0)

                a = 0.179ms-2

I will now apply this equation for all the other light gate positions.

Now that I have acceleration for the trolley I can model it going down a slope and find out the model acceleration. This value can then be subtracted from the actual value to give resistance to the path of the trolley.

This is the simplified right-angle triangle from the diagram on the page before. This will make it easier to see what is happening.

image01.png

The angle theta (θ)

...read more.

Conclusion

Graph 3:        Graph showing how the Kinetic Energy of the trolley changes as it goes down the slope.

The graph shows as that as the trolley goes further down the slope, its kinetic energy increases. This is very easy to explain in that as it moves down the slope it picks up more speed. The equation for kinetic energy is k.e. = ½mv2. The mass of the particle does not change and so the rise in kinetic energy is solely due to the trolley increasing in speed. When it is higher up the slope, it has more gravitational potential energy so it cannot posses as much kinetic. Lower down the slope it has less G.p.e. so it can posses more k.e.

Graph 4:        Graph to show how the Gravitational Potential Energy of the trolley changes as it goes down the slope.

The graph shows that as the trolley travels further down the slope it has less gravitational potential energy. This is also easy to explain in that when it is at the top of the ramp it has more height. Since G.p.e. = mgh, the more height it has the more G.p.e. it shall have. As it moves down the slope it is not as high up, so it has less G.p.e.

Graph 5:        Comparing G.p.e. with k.e.

This graph basically illustrates the connection between G.p.e. and k.e. It shows that when one increases the other must decrease. Using this graph and plotting interpolation lines and then using the G.p.e. against distance graph one can work out the position of the trolley at a given location. image04.pngimage04.png

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Forces and Motion section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Forces and Motion essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Investigate the relationship between GPE (Gravitational Potential Energy) and KE (Kinetic Energy) for a ...

    3 star(s)

    Collecting Data To insure that my investigation was a fair test, I tried to position the trolley at the same starting point for each drop/release. I made sure the trolley was completely stationary at the start. For my safety I made sure there was something steady at the end of

  2. What affects the acceleration of a trolley down a ramp?

    the experiment I did to be fairly accurate and to provide enough evidence to support a firm conclusion. I know that my results are accurate because I could compare them to my predicted results to see whether they were right or not.

  1. An investigation into factors that effect the braking distance of a trolley

    I believe that the experiment went very well because I did not face any major difficulties in obtaining or recording my results. If I had more time I would record more results to make my results more accurate. Using scientific instruments I could have measured the braking distance more accurately.

  2. Factors Affecting the Speed of a Car after Freewheeling down a Slope

    had followed the exact pattern of the theoretical results, would have been 3.0 m/s. However in the real experiment, due to friction between the wheels of the trolley and the surface of the runway and the air resistance, my trolley could only pick up a maximum speed of 2.0 m/s.

  1. Speed Of trolley

    For safety I'll ensure that everybody is at a distance from the experiment so there'll be no accidental injuries. In order to keep a fair test I'll make sure that: The same ramp is used for each test. The same trolley is used for each test.

  2. Investigating the Factors Which Affect the Motion of a Trolley Down an Inclined Plane

    30g, 40g, 50g, and we will try to use 50g+ if it is safe. 3. Set the ramp at an incline carefully adjusted to the correct height so that no force will change the speed of the trolley, this will be a controlled variable.

  1. In this experiment I aim to find out how the force and mass affect ...

    For this reason ALL objects accelerate at the same rate ignoring air resistance. Prediction Using the sin function I can find out how high the ramp has to be for a 5� angle. The length of the ramp is 124.8cm.

  2. Approximate Stopping Distances

    Braking distances are not directly proportional to speed unlike thinking distances which are directly proportional to speed. The braking distance increases massively as the as the speed of the vehicle increases. For example if the vehicle is travelling at 30 mph the braking distance is 45 ft and when the

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work