• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Trolly Experiment

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Data Analysis Coursework

I am going to investigate the relationship between the velocity of a moving object, and the distance it travels down a ramp, using secondary data obtained by a class experiment.

image00.png

The apparatus was set up as shown above and illustrates a runaway vehicle down a hill. The light gate was placed at several points along the slope and measured the velocity of the card passing through it.

The trolley, of mass 1000g (1kg), was released 126cm up the slope from front of the card. The palm top then measured the time it took for the whole piece of card to pass through the light gate.

Once this was done the light gate was moved down the slope by 10cm at a time and again recorded the time it took for the card to pass through the light gate. This was carried out for 8 different locations. Each location’s time was repeated to end up with 3 readings. The average of these could then be taken and used as the time it took for the card to pass through the light gate.

To reduce the fiction of the wheel axis on the trolley, I have sprayed it with a lubricant (WD40).

The results I have been given are as follows:

Distance to Light Gate (m)

Velocity (m/s)

1st go

2nd go

3rd go

Mean Velocity

0.8

0.565

0.556

0.556

0.559

0.7

0.532

0.518

0.525

0.525

0.6

0.487

0.484

0.481

0.484

0.5

0.449

0.436

0.437

0.441

0.4

0.395

0.390

0.393

0.393

0.3

0.339

0.338

0.339

0.339

0.2

0.277

0.277

0.274

0.276

0.1

0.186

0.191

0.190

0.189

I have decided to make a preliminary graph to show my expected results.

image05.png

The graph above shows that as the slope distance increases the velocity of the trolley must increase.

...read more.

Middle

As well as this I can use Newton’s Second Law to Model the Particle, in order to find out friction etc.

Newton’s second law states, ‘The Force, F, applied to a particle is proportional to the mass, m, of the particle and the acceleration produced.’

This can then be represented by the equation F = ma.

In order to model the trolley I must know the acceleration. I will therefore use the SUVAT equations first.

Firstly, I shall work out is the time that the trolley took to reach the light gate by rearranging the equation:

                s = ½ (v + u)t

Therefore         2s = (v + u)t

                t = 2s / v                        (as initial velocity is always zero)

Therefore for the 0.1m light gate the trolley takes:

                t = 0.2 / 0.189

                t = 1.06s

I can now do this for all the other light gate positions also.

I can now work out the acceleration of the trolley through the light gate by using the formula:

                a = (v – u) / t

For the 0.1m light gate:

                a = 0.189 / 1.06 (because u = 0)

                a = 0.179ms-2

I will now apply this equation for all the other light gate positions.

Now that I have acceleration for the trolley I can model it going down a slope and find out the model acceleration. This value can then be subtracted from the actual value to give resistance to the path of the trolley.

This is the simplified right-angle triangle from the diagram on the page before. This will make it easier to see what is happening.

image01.png

The angle theta (θ)

...read more.

Conclusion

Graph 3:        Graph showing how the Kinetic Energy of the trolley changes as it goes down the slope.

The graph shows as that as the trolley goes further down the slope, its kinetic energy increases. This is very easy to explain in that as it moves down the slope it picks up more speed. The equation for kinetic energy is k.e. = ½mv2. The mass of the particle does not change and so the rise in kinetic energy is solely due to the trolley increasing in speed. When it is higher up the slope, it has more gravitational potential energy so it cannot posses as much kinetic. Lower down the slope it has less G.p.e. so it can posses more k.e.

Graph 4:        Graph to show how the Gravitational Potential Energy of the trolley changes as it goes down the slope.

The graph shows that as the trolley travels further down the slope it has less gravitational potential energy. This is also easy to explain in that when it is at the top of the ramp it has more height. Since G.p.e. = mgh, the more height it has the more G.p.e. it shall have. As it moves down the slope it is not as high up, so it has less G.p.e.

Graph 5:        Comparing G.p.e. with k.e.

This graph basically illustrates the connection between G.p.e. and k.e. It shows that when one increases the other must decrease. Using this graph and plotting interpolation lines and then using the G.p.e. against distance graph one can work out the position of the trolley at a given location. image04.pngimage04.png

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Forces and Motion section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Forces and Motion essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Investigate the relationship between GPE (Gravitational Potential Energy) and KE (Kinetic Energy) for a ...

    3 star(s)

    Interrupt Card To make sure I got accurate and reliable readings I used a Data Logger to record the time, because it times to the nearest 100th of a milliseconds. I also used a light gate so there was no possibility of human error.

  2. What affects the acceleration of a trolley down a ramp?

    This means getting rid of mass. A = gh/l Because gravity and the length are both constants this proves acceleration is directly proportional to height as you can see in my experiment. This theory is all very well but I have actually proved it in an experiment EVALUATION I consider

  1. Investigating the Factors Which Affect the Motion of a Trolley Down an Inclined Plane

    The length of the ramp must remain the same otherwise we will not be able to know whether the acceleration was influenced by the height of the ramp or another factor and if the ramp length was to be extended further this would cause there to be a different velocity.

  2. In this experiment I aim to find out how the force and mass affect ...

    I predict that the difference in the mass of the ball will not affect the acceleration of it. I am able to make my prediction by using my own knowledge and information from textbooks. The greater the mass of an object, the greater force needed to accelerate it.

  1. Factors Affecting the Speed of a Car after Freewheeling down a Slope

    air resistance, so the quicker it will slow down on the flat surface. The Variable factors: The velocity of the moving trolley is affected by the following factors: 1. Mass of the trolley 2. Area of contact surface 3. Gradient of the slope from which the trolley will start its motion 4.

  2. Motion of an object as it slides down a slope at different angles to ...

    a is expressed in terms of g sin?. s is denoted by l, the length that the object has travelled in the gutter. Therefore v2 = 2gl sin? Hence the horizontal displacement in this case is sx = d = t cos?

  1. Speed Of trolley

    Frictional force is working against the flow of motion. So the trolley goes down the runway but friction is trying to slow it down so the force becomes negative. One of Newton's law (the law of motion) is F=MA. Where F=Force, M=Mass and A=Acceleration.

  2. Basically I have been asked to act as the two enthusiastic experts and test, ...

    ? Mass of trolley - mass is also included in the formula for potential energy and so could affect the speed of the trolley one way or the other. As with height, this will be varied but only in the second experiment.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work