• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Trolly Experiment

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Data Analysis Coursework

I am going to investigate the relationship between the velocity of a moving object, and the distance it travels down a ramp, using secondary data obtained by a class experiment.

image00.png

The apparatus was set up as shown above and illustrates a runaway vehicle down a hill. The light gate was placed at several points along the slope and measured the velocity of the card passing through it.

The trolley, of mass 1000g (1kg), was released 126cm up the slope from front of the card. The palm top then measured the time it took for the whole piece of card to pass through the light gate.

Once this was done the light gate was moved down the slope by 10cm at a time and again recorded the time it took for the card to pass through the light gate. This was carried out for 8 different locations. Each location’s time was repeated to end up with 3 readings. The average of these could then be taken and used as the time it took for the card to pass through the light gate.

To reduce the fiction of the wheel axis on the trolley, I have sprayed it with a lubricant (WD40).

The results I have been given are as follows:

Distance to Light Gate (m)

Velocity (m/s)

1st go

2nd go

3rd go

Mean Velocity

0.8

0.565

0.556

0.556

0.559

0.7

0.532

0.518

0.525

0.525

0.6

0.487

0.484

0.481

0.484

0.5

0.449

0.436

0.437

0.441

0.4

0.395

0.390

0.393

0.393

0.3

0.339

0.338

0.339

0.339

0.2

0.277

0.277

0.274

0.276

0.1

0.186

0.191

0.190

0.189

I have decided to make a preliminary graph to show my expected results.

image05.png

The graph above shows that as the slope distance increases the velocity of the trolley must increase.

...read more.

Middle

As well as this I can use Newton’s Second Law to Model the Particle, in order to find out friction etc.

Newton’s second law states, ‘The Force, F, applied to a particle is proportional to the mass, m, of the particle and the acceleration produced.’

This can then be represented by the equation F = ma.

In order to model the trolley I must know the acceleration. I will therefore use the SUVAT equations first.

Firstly, I shall work out is the time that the trolley took to reach the light gate by rearranging the equation:

                s = ½ (v + u)t

Therefore         2s = (v + u)t

                t = 2s / v                        (as initial velocity is always zero)

Therefore for the 0.1m light gate the trolley takes:

                t = 0.2 / 0.189

                t = 1.06s

I can now do this for all the other light gate positions also.

I can now work out the acceleration of the trolley through the light gate by using the formula:

                a = (v – u) / t

For the 0.1m light gate:

                a = 0.189 / 1.06 (because u = 0)

                a = 0.179ms-2

I will now apply this equation for all the other light gate positions.

Now that I have acceleration for the trolley I can model it going down a slope and find out the model acceleration. This value can then be subtracted from the actual value to give resistance to the path of the trolley.

This is the simplified right-angle triangle from the diagram on the page before. This will make it easier to see what is happening.

image01.png

The angle theta (θ)

...read more.

Conclusion

Graph 3:        Graph showing how the Kinetic Energy of the trolley changes as it goes down the slope.

The graph shows as that as the trolley goes further down the slope, its kinetic energy increases. This is very easy to explain in that as it moves down the slope it picks up more speed. The equation for kinetic energy is k.e. = ½mv2. The mass of the particle does not change and so the rise in kinetic energy is solely due to the trolley increasing in speed. When it is higher up the slope, it has more gravitational potential energy so it cannot posses as much kinetic. Lower down the slope it has less G.p.e. so it can posses more k.e.

Graph 4:        Graph to show how the Gravitational Potential Energy of the trolley changes as it goes down the slope.

The graph shows that as the trolley travels further down the slope it has less gravitational potential energy. This is also easy to explain in that when it is at the top of the ramp it has more height. Since G.p.e. = mgh, the more height it has the more G.p.e. it shall have. As it moves down the slope it is not as high up, so it has less G.p.e.

Graph 5:        Comparing G.p.e. with k.e.

This graph basically illustrates the connection between G.p.e. and k.e. It shows that when one increases the other must decrease. Using this graph and plotting interpolation lines and then using the G.p.e. against distance graph one can work out the position of the trolley at a given location. image04.pngimage04.png

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Forces and Motion section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Forces and Motion essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Investigate the relationship between GPE (Gravitational Potential Energy) and KE (Kinetic Energy) for a ...

    3 star(s)

    It also showed me that keeping the length of the starting point on the ramp the same was a reasonable decision.

  2. In this experiment I aim to find out how the force and mass affect ...

    As the metal ball rolls over them, it completes the circuit and starts the stop-clock. As it then rolls over the second set, it again completes the circuit and stops the clock. I will take three readings, and in the end take the average.

  1. Investigating the Factors Which Affect the Motion of a Trolley Down an Inclined Plane

    DISTANCE / TIME Safety There are no real safety issues to worry about, however to be certain that there are no injuries, we will make sure everyone's ramps are well spaced apart, to prevent any trolleys colliding into anyone, and that our ramp is very stable to prevent it collapsing and hurting someone.

  2. Factors Affecting the Speed of a Car after Freewheeling down a Slope

    At each height interval a few test runs will be done so that the apparatus can be aligned to avoid any accidents. Preliminary Experiment: In the preliminary experiment three factors were varied in order to decide the most suitable one to investigate as a variable for the final investigation.

  1. Approximate Stopping Distances

    Thinking distance is also affected by the age and health of the driver. The age of the driver effects the thinking distance because if the driver is over 70 years old it would take them longer to react than someone aged between 30 to 40 years because as a person

  2. Speed Of trolley

    is F=MA. Where F=Force, M=Mass and A=Acceleration. The trolley accelerates due to gravity but not as fast as it could have due to friction- depends on how rough the surface is. The trolley will also be slower if the surface has many bumps. If the trolley is going through bumps it will find difficult to reach the bottom.

  1. What affects the acceleration of a trolley down a ramp?

    Another way of finding SinX is by dividing the height of the slope by the length. In mathematical terms this is Sine = Opposite / Hypotenuse. This makes the formula for the force down the slope mgh/l where h is height and l is length.

  2. The data that I am going to analyse has been obtained from an experiment ...

    Expected Values Fig 2 To find velocity A I will break up the downward force C. I know the angle of the ramp is Sin = o/h. =0.327/2.44 = 0.134. Sin-1 = 7.701o The other angle (B) in the triangle = 180-7.701-90 = 82.3o So breaking up the force gives us: - Fig 3 Original force (Black)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work