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"Understand the Nature of Natural and Artificial Cloning of Plants and Animals."

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Introduction

Peter Webster 6WH Mr. Stott "Understand the Nature of Natural and Artificial Cloning of Plants and Animals." Asexual reproduction is the production of offspring from a single parent using mitosis. Therefore, with only 1 set of chromosomes being involved the offspring will be genetically identical to the "parent". This means that the offspring will be a clone of the "parent". Asexual reproduction can be either natural or artificial. In this essay I aim to cover all the possible methods of cloning, as illustrated in the table below. Organism Natural Methods Artificial Methods Plants Vegetative Propagation Parthenogenesis Cuttings Grafting Tissue Culture Animals Budding Fragmentation Parthenogenesis Embryo Splitting Somatic Cell Cloning Vegetative Reproduction, describes all the natural methods of asexual reproduction in plants. The first way a plant can clone itself is by Vegetative Propagation. A bud grows from a vegetative part of the plan, usually the stem, and develops into a completely new plant which will eventually become detached from the "parent" plant. In this method the outgrowths can be in the form of new bulbs, e.g. ...read more.

Middle

Each cutting produces new roots and flowers into a new plant identical to the one it started as. Therefore the original plant can be cloned as many times as you want. One example of a plant that is commercially produced using this method is Geraniums. Grafting is an ancient method used to clone plants. It was devised for plants that could not grow new roots when they had been treated as cuttings. Instead the stem is cut and grafted onto the roots of an already existing plant, see below: [image003.gif] The final technique is tissue culture or micro propagation and is more modern than the other two methods. Small samples of plant tissue are grown on agar jelly plates in a laboratory. The tissue is separated into individual cells. The cells grow into a mass of similar cells and when the correct plant hormones are added they can develop into small plantlets. These can then be planted into the ground outside were they will develop into normal sized plants. Conditions must be kept sterile at all times to prevent infections by microbes. ...read more.

Conclusion

The eggs are removed from the ovaries and fertilised in vitro, with a male super cow's sperm cell and allowed to develop for a few days until it has divided into 16 cells. (Here the cells can be split up individually, so another 16 embryos could be produced). The embryos are then implanted back into the cow's uterus where it will develop and have a natural birth. The final artificial method for cloning animals is by Somatic Cell Cloning. This is an advancement on embryo splitting. With embryo splitting you can not guarantee what the characteristics of the offspring will be, you can only assume that by combining a super dad and a super mum you will get a super baby. With somatic cell cloning you can clone a mature animal. Until recently it has been thought impossible to do, but in 1996 "Dolly" the sheep was cloned. For Dolly the cell was taken from the skin of the udder and was fused with an unfertilised egg which had had its nucleus removed. The combination was like a zygote and it developed into an embryo. The embryo was implanted back into a sheep's uterus where it developed and was born naturally. This information was provided by Peter Webster Jr. ...read more.

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