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# Volumetric Analysis

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Introduction

Volumetric Analysis Aim The aim of this investigation is to find the various measurements of concentration (Also called the morality) of acid that will neutralise 1 mole of sodium hydroxide. This is found using the titration method. Prediction I predict that the volume of acid that will be used to neutralise the given solution would depend on the concentration. The more acid I add to an alkali, the more neutral it will become. If I add too much acid, the solution will not neutralise, so therefor it will turn to an acidic solution. This happens in all scientific experiments. Apparatus 1x conical flask 1x burette 1x clamp stand 1x 50ml bottle of universal indicator (any amount as long as it can do 40 drops) 1x solution 1 - HCI (Hydrochloric acid) 1x solution 2 - H2SO4 (Sulphuric acid) 1x solution 3 - HNO3 (Nitric acid) 1x White tile 1x measuring cylinder 1x funnel 1x safety glasses Diagram Safety with apparatus * Do not shake the conical flask too vigorously or the solution will spill. * Always be prepared for a spill. * Make sure that the burette is closed when not in use. ...read more.

Middle

This might entail finding the percentage of nickel ore or the number of parts per million of mercury in a fish. Qualitative analysis can be done by means of volumetric analysis, in which reactions take place inside the solution. Volumetric analysis is a means of finding out the concentration of a solution. He method is to add a base in a careful way until there is enough acid to neutralise the base. This method is called titration. In a titration, method, the titrant, is added to another slowly. As it is added, a chemical reaction occurs until one of the solutions in the compound is exhausted. This experiment is an acid based titration. The concentration of one of the two substances must be known so that you can calculate the other concentration. All acid based titration reactions are simple exchanges of protons. How to work out the concentration of any solution? E.G. A solution of hydrochloric acid it titrated against a standard sodium hydroxide solution. What is the concentration of hydrochloric acid? Solution 1. Write out the equation. Hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide --> sodium chloride + water HCI (aq) ...read more.

Conclusion

2. Amount in moles of NaOH Amount in (mol) = volume (1) x concentration (mol/l) Amount of NaOH = 25.0 cm3 x 1.0 (mol/l) =25/1000 x 1.0 mol/l =25/1000 x 1.0 mol/l =0.025 mol 3. Concentration of HNO3 Amount (mol) of HNO3 = Amount (mol) of NaOH = 0.025 mol Therefor 25.0/1000 x C = 0.025 mol C = 0.025/25 mol x 1000 C= 1.00 mol/l C = 1 mol Conclusion I have found that: - Hydrochloric acid- 2.00mol/l (2 m) Sulphuric acid- 1.00 mol/l ( 1m) Nitric acid- 1.00 mol/l (1m) Evaluation Due too accurate and the amount of tests, I say that these results are quite accurate. The main concern about the experiment was spillage. If anything had spilt, then it would had changed the readings. In addition, I was concerned about the idiotic behaviour of some pupils that felt that they could add more drops of a solution to the sodium hydroxide. To improve this experiment I would get a more controlled environment and also tried other acids and bases. Research 2 Sulphuric acid Sulphuric acid is a corrosive, oily, colourless liquid. It melts at 10.36�C. It boils at 340�C. It is soluble and when mixed with water, considerable amount of heat is released. Nitric acid Nitric acid is a colourless corrosive liquid that melts at -42�C and boils at 83�C. ...read more.

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