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Water is a molecule composed of two elements of hydrogen covalently bonded with one element of oxygen

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Introduction

AP Biology Essay 1 Water is a molecule composed of two elements of hydrogen covalently bonded with one element of oxygen. Because of the polarity created from the covalent bond these molecules of water are all connected with a hydrogen bond. A hydrogen bond is formed when two molecules are attracted to oppositely charged components of another molecule. A hydrogen bond has about 5% the strength of a covalent bond and is responsible for some of the unique qualities found in water. It takes a large amount of energy to break down the hydrogen bonds in water allowing it to have a high specific heat, giving water its high boiling point and allowing it to maintain a liquid form over a wide range of temperatures. The hydrogen bonds also allow water to have high surface tension. ...read more.

Middle

When water takes its solid form it is less dense then in its liquid state and in the liquid form it is less dense then in the gaseous state. This is because as water decreases in temperature it approaches its maximum density. Water is most dense at 4 degrees Celsius. This is reached while water is still in its liquid form, therefore causing ice to float on water. High specific heat is significant to life on Earth because of the ability to maintain a moderate temperature while that around it is changing. As the sun beats on water during the daytime the temperature of the water slowly rises, and during the night the warm water heats the air above it causing the climate to stay relatively the same. This is why climates near large bodies of water are more moderate. ...read more.

Conclusion

Water being a universal solvent is very useful for humans. This makes it easier for humans to get the required amounts of water needed to sustain life. Water is the basis of many components in our body and other living organisms, blood, the liquid in cells, the nutrients that is consumed from plants, etc. The abnormal density of water is helpful to keep water reusable. Most fresh water on earth is consumed by glaciers and ice caps. If the solid form of water was not less dense then the liquid state then water would freeze and sink from the surface to the bottom and most likely never be used again. This trait gives water a chance to melt and be reused. Ice floating on top of water protects the liquid below the ice from being exposed to cold air and potential becoming frozen through and through. Water is significant in many ways and has unusual characteristics helping living organisms maintain life on earth. ?? ?? ?? ?? Jesina Elliston ...read more.

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Response to the question

The analysis in this piece is particularly strong, and goes beyond GCSE level. Although there isn't an explicit question, I imagine this could be a response to an essay question in an exam. They have covered nearly all the marking ...

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Response to the question

The analysis in this piece is particularly strong, and goes beyond GCSE level. Although there isn't an explicit question, I imagine this could be a response to an essay question in an exam. They have covered nearly all the marking points relevant to water molecules, and so this is a great example for revision of this topic!

Level of analysis

The explanation of water as a molecule is thorough. I like how this essay is structured, introducing the molecule's structure and then explaining how this structure contributes to the qualities of water. It was nice to see how this essay addressed how each quality is relevant, rather than just explaining it. I particularly liked how they mentioned cohesion enabled transpiration in plants - being able to link topics together will gain credit in exams or coursework as it shows an understanding of the syllabus. The use of scientific terms is strong throughout. This essay correctly explains polarity of water molecules and refers to it as the universal solvent - using terminology such as this is a sign of a strong essay! Whenever talking about bonds in biology, I always draw a diagram. So, an improvement for this essay would be to include diagram showing two water molecules with a hydrogen bond clearly labeled.

Quality of writing

This essay is structured particularly well. The introduction is clear, and I like how each paragraph has a clear signpost. From doing English Literature at A-Level, this is a great technique when writing essays, but it seems to be neglected in other subjects! Starting each paragraph with a simple sentence will make it clear where the marks should be allocated, and often helps you keep focussed without repeating yourself or going off on a tangent! Spelling and grammar is faultless. This essay is to be admired!


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Reviewed by groat 08/02/2012

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