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Water Pollution & Sewage Disposal

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Water Pollution & Sewage Disposal Every day you use about 160 litres for things like drinking, cooking and washing, I'm going to investigate where it comes from and how it's purified. Some comes from deep wells called boreholes, which takes water from water filled rocks or aquifers. COMPTON BASSETT LANDFILL SITE, WILTSHIRE Methane Stripping Plants Methane gas may remain dissolved in the water collected for sewer discharge. Where no pre-treatment is undertaken which itself removes this methane, it is important it is removed, or "stripped" from the water before discharge. If methane is not stripped before discharge to sewer it is possible that pockets of methane gas may form in the sewer when the dissolved methane vaporises. This may develop an explosive mixture in air, and is therefore an explosion hazard. This plant was designed to "strip" up to 1,000 m3/day at a cost of approximately 0.4 UKP/m3 (power and maintenance). It will consistently reduce the dissolved methane concentration to one tenth of the concentration theoretically capable of producing an explosive mixture in the sewer airspace. Reed Beds This reed bed successfully treats water from an old closed landfill, and is primarily intended to remove iron. Extended studies of the site hydrochemistry have shown that very low-level residual organic pesticides and herbicides are also being consistently removed. ...read more.

Middle

The thinning of the ozone layer may lead to an increase of skin cancer and eye cataract. The presence of 'ozone hole' over Antarctica and the southern hemisphere has introduced incidence of increasing victims of skin cancer. The yield of crops may also decrease. The expanse in medical cure and economical loss in food is uncountable. Smoke, ash and soot become deposited on clothes, cars and buildings. They are costly to clean. The visibility reduces when there is smoke. This highly affects the safety of navigation and aviation. It is a reduction of appeal on tourists to come to a smoky, choky place. Chlorofluorocarbons: Due to their inert behaviour, the once emitted CFCs can stay in the atmosphere for a long time (a few tens of years). They will not be broken down by rainwater. The prolonged effect of CFCs is the depletion of ozone layer. The Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is the rise in temperature that the Earth experiences because certain gases in the atmosphere (water vapour, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane, for example) trap energy from the sun. Without these gases, heat would escape back into space and Earth's average temperature would be about 60�F colder. Because of how they warm our world, these gases are referred to as greenhouse gases. ...read more.

Conclusion

Minerals extraction is broadly divided into three basic methods: open-pit or surface, underground, and solution mining. The mining method used depends on the particular mineral, the nature of the deposit, and the location of the deposit. For this industry, most mining is open-pit or surface mining. Surface or open-pit mining requires extensive blasting, as well as rock, soil, and vegetation removal to reach mineral deposits. Waste rock, or overburden, is piled away from the mine. Benches are cut into the walls of the mine to provide access to progressively deeper ore, as upper-level ore is depleted. Ore is removed from the mine and transported to processing plants for concentration The source of crushed stone is usually a deposit of relatively solid rock such as limestone, dolomite, trap rock, granite or sandstone. Dust emissions occur from many operations in stone quarrying and processing. Dust is released when rock and crushed stone products are loosened by drilling or blasting them from their deposit beds. Dust is also released when the loosened rock is loaded into trucks by power shovels or front-end loaders. Transporting the quarried material to the processing plant generates dust from the rock inside the truck and from the road. Sources of dust at the processing plant include the dumping of rock into primary crushers; primary, secondary, and tertiary crushing; screening; transferring rock by belt conveyor; loading rock onto storage piles from conveyors; and wind blowing dust from storage piles and open conveyors. ...read more.

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