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We are going to find out how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of the reaction between hydrochloric acid and marblechips

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Introduction

Rates of Chemical Reactions AIM: We are going to find out how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of the reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips. PREDICTION: I predict that the higher the concentration the faster the reaction will take place this is because in a higher concentration there will more hydrochloric acid molecules which means that there will be a higher chance of the calcium carbonate (marble chip) molecules colliding with the hydrochloric acid and reacting. This should in theory increase the rate of reaction as the concentration is increased. The reaction rate, however, should decrease as the experiment progresses because as the reaction time increases the number of hydrochloric acid molecules present will decrease as they have been reacted to form water calcium chloride and carbon dioxide. Thus it will decrease due to a decrease in concentration. (2HCL+CaCO � CaCl +Co +H 0)- The reaction that takes place can be described using this formula. The increase in the concentration should be directly proportional to the increase of the reaction rate at a given time. This is because by doubling the number of hydrochloric acid molecules present the chance of a collision should be doubled, as there is now twice the possibility of a collision-taking place initially. ...read more.

Middle

As the experiment had now started I recorded the results every 15 sec. I did this for however long each of the molar tests took as they varied. I then changed the mass of the chips and the concentration of acid until I had all the data that was required. The experiment would be set up as shown above. PRELIMINARY RESULTS: (Result on table on next sheet) Preliminary description For my preliminary results I tested each molarity experiment twice to get a broader reading database and to compare results to and see if any errors had been made. For test one and the repeat the molarity was 2 (20ml hydrochloric acid) and so the results were very fast in both. 100ml of gas was collected in exactly 2minutes. Test two had no results as the molarity was 0 and there was no acid for the reaction to take place. In test 3 the acid and water concentrations are equal (1oml each) 1molar. I took longer to collect 100ml of gas than test 1 because I changed half of the concentration. I thought that it would take twice as long but it didn't because the surface area varies and so changes the speed that it dissolves in. In test 4 the results were fairly in between and nearer to 2molar readings but slower. ...read more.

Conclusion

average was 98ml at 105 seconds but tests 3and 8's average was also 98ml but at 270 seconds. There are some things that may affect the speed or way the bubbles move or how the gas is collected e.g.- While most of the tests gave small bubbles through the tube at a small and steady rate some of the tests (5 and 10) gave very large bubbles that only came up every 30-40 seconds. I think this is because air/gas is trapped underneath the delivery tube holder and is occasionally released after pressure builds up and so the bubble takes all of the water in one go giving a sudden surge in present readings at the time. Another way in which the tests could be made fairer is by changing the shape of the marble chips. Instead of having separate lumps/pieces off the calcium carbonate which all vary in surface area, shape and size, I think that the chips should be crushed into smaller segments which will solve the problem of one being bigger than the other. During setting up my equipment and replacing the solutions the measuring cylinder had to be turned upside down quickly into the water bowl. By doing this I believe that some water was displaced, as it cannot be possibly done accurately by hand. Overall I think that with the equipment and time given I was able to obtain enough evidence to back up my prediction. ...read more.

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