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What affects a person's reaction time?

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Introduction

What affects a person's reaction time? Background: all living organisms are sensitive to the environment; this means they can detect changes in their environment these changes are known as stimuli. The parts of the body which detects the stimuli are called receptors. In animals there known as the sense organs: The nervous system collects information about changes inside or outside the body, decides how the body should respond and controls that response. Information is collected by receptor cells that are usually grouped together in sense organs, also known as receptors. Each type of receptor is sensitive to a different kind of change or stimulus. There are five different sense organs which are mentioned below: Sense Organ Sense Stimulus Skin Touch Pressure, pain, hot/cold temperatures. Tongue Taste Chemicals in food and drink. Nose Smell Chemicals in the air. Eyes Sight Light, movement Ears Hearing Balance Sound movement. The eye is an example as it's a receptor that detects light. The flow of the information from stimulus to response is: Stimulus > Receptors > (senses) > sensory neurone information > central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) > motor neurone instructions> effectors (muscles and glands) > response. The sense organs are connected to the rest of the nervous system which is made up of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves. It is in the brain and spinal cord that information is processed and decisions are made. The brain and spinal cord together are called the central nervous system (CNS). Signals are sent through the nervous system in the form of electro-chemical impulses. There are three types of nerve cells or neurones: Sensory neurones which carry signals to the CNS Motor neurones which carry signals from the CNS controlling how we respond Relay (intermediate or connecting) neurones which connect other neurones together. A sensory neurone: Neurones are specialised in several ways: * They can be very long to carry signals from one part of the body to another. ...read more.

Middle

I believe the result for this will be equal. Also the last investigation for left and right handed people I believe as in our experiment everyone will be using there right hand so the left handed people will be slower whilst being blindfolded and seeing the ruler this is because they are so used to sending signals from there left hand this means the right side of there brain is used to receiving the signals not the left side which will be the case when they use there right hand. Apparatus: * 50 cm ruler * 30cm ruler * 10 students (5 boys and 5 girls) * a scarf to cover the eyes Method: in order to do the following experiment I will be following this procedure: 1. Collect the apparatus. 2. I will have to measure 10cm from each persons hand and drop the ruler between there hand when they can see as soon as they catch the ruler I will record the measurement they caught it at. 3. For each person I will do this 10 times so I have varied results which will be more accurate. 4. I will then blindfold each person and repeat the experiment. Each person will be tested 10 times. 5. After I have recorded the results I will test those who are originally left handed to see if there is a big difference. 6. The results will be recorded in a table. Preliminary Work: Prior to this experiment I did an experiment to help with a prediction and also to help indicate a number and range for the main experiment. The results from this experiment had many errors occur due to humanly errors. Whilst doing the experiment we didn't measure the 10cm above the hand accurately. This caused all are results to be inaccurate also we decided we needed to be more careful when measuring the 10cm above people hand because they kept moving there hand as the ruler went up. ...read more.

Conclusion

There were many attempts before the actual ruler went through. Looking through the results I find them sufficient enough to back my conclusion up as they do show the general pattern I was looking out for. If I was to do the experiment again I would find a more accurate way of measuring as at times the experiment was quite confusing. I would also want to test something other then a ruler. I would also change more variables but due to the lack of time this wasn't possible. The results however were taken 10times and a mean was found which seemed adequate as it was overlooked by large values. The results we took aren't too narrow as we took results from a wide spread and verity of people but if I was to do the experiment I would test people of different age groups as this time we only tested students age 15-16. They attend to have quicker reflexes as they are fitter then old peoples. I believe if we were to do older people they would take longer to catch the ruler. These results can be used for a graph as they generally follow a trend and show the more senses you use the quicker you are. Further work: To extend this experiment it could be repeated exactly as before, by other variables being changed, or these variables being extended i.e. like the blindfolded student being able to use his ears. The ruler could be let go and someone could shout now. Other variables in the experiment could be changed for example we could test to find out which part of the skin contains the most touch receptors, or we could see which part of tongue is able to taste different flavours as these are other senses which can be investigated. Also with this experiment the distance between the hand and the ruler could be varied as distance can affect your reflex if you are able to use you sight. Sadia Shahzad 9134 ...read more.

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