• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12

What affects the acceleration of a trolley down a ramp?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

what affects the acceleration of a trolley down a ramp? BACKGROUND INFORMATION Before I can begin to devise an experiment into what affects the acceleration of a trolley down a ramp I had to research into certain areas. Below is the information I found. This is will be useful to me in forming a prediction and doing an effective experiment. Speed Speed hardly needs an explanation but it is useful to include the equation to find speed. Speed = Distance travelled (m) / Time taken (seconds) Velocity Velocity is almost the same thing as speed but it is a vector quantity. Velocity has a size and a direction. If a car is travelling at a constant speed in a straight line, then it has constant velocity. If it turned a corner then its velocity would change even though its speed remains constant. Acceleration Acceleration = Change in velocity / Time taken for the change A = v-u / t If the change in velocity is measured in m/s and the time is measured in seconds then acceleration is measured in m/s� or ms-�. The relationship between acceleration, force and mass is given by the formula Acceleration = force / mass Or Force = mass * acceleration This is Newton's second law of motion. Gravitational field strength A freely falling object has only one force acting upon it; its weight, in a downwards direction. Its weight causes it to accelerate at a steady pace because A = f/m F= w = m*g A= m*g/m A=g So acceleration is numerically equal to g, the gravitational field strength. Near the earth's surface, all freely falling objects therefore have the same acceleration; 9.8m/s�. This acceleration is known as acceleration due to gravity. Equations of motion A= v-u/t or v=u+at U=v/2 = s/t t S = (u+v)/ 2 S= (u+(u+at)/2)t Rearranged = s= ut + a/s at� S = (u+v/2) ...read more.

Middle

Results with light gates at 35cm Height (cm) Time 1 (s) Time 2 (s) Time 3 (s) Time 4 (s) Time 5 (s) Average (s) 35 0.820 0.800 0.840 0.850 0.820 0.826 Conclusion As you can see from the results above the results with the light gates seem to be closer together than the results with the stop clock. With the stop clock the results ranged from 0.65 to 0.90. With the light gates only from 0.80 to 0.85. This is a big difference. The light gates seem to be, and should be, more accurate. The light gates also have the advantage of not relying on human responses like the stop clock. This means anyone could set up the light gates but it would have to be the same person every time using the stop clock because of differing response times. How many times should I do each height? Looking at my results from the light gates before I don't think it is really necessary for me to do each experiment 5 times because of the accuracy of the light gates and the small range of the results. I will only do each experiment 3 times because I think this is enough to get good results. PLAN Apparatus Trolley Ramp Clamps Metre rule Light gates Cardboard Electronic Scales Method 1. Put the end of the ramp into the clamps this enables you to easily move it up and down to the desired height. 2. Measure a distance of 1 metre along the ramp, the starting line being the length of a trolley away from the end. Mark this on to the ramp. 3. Raise the ramp to the height you are investigating at the end using the clamps. The height should be measured from the start line and on both sides so the ramp isn't lop-sided. 4. Put a light gate in a clamp and put it over the start line so when the trolley goes down the ramp it will break the light beam. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is why I thought it important that I kept all results. If I were to do this experiment again I would definitely do each height 5 plus times because it would make it easier to identify anomalous results. I think my results are accurate enough to provide a firm conclusion because I have done everything in my power to make it as accurate as possible. I have used light gates because they were the most reliable timing method available to me and I have always been very careful in my measurements of height. I did the experiment in the same environment each time and used the same trolley and ramp each time. I also have my predicted results to compare my results to so I can make sure they are along the right lines. If I were to do this experiment again I would be sure to take each height 5 times because of reasons stated above. I would also try and take friction in to account. At the beginning of this experiment I thought because the trolley had such smooth running wheels and the ramp itself had such a smooth surface I wouldn't have to worry about friction. However we can see a big difference between the predicted results without friction and my results. The only factor I can think of that would cause this, aside from air resistance is friction. I could measure friction by putting a trolley on a ramp and then gradually lifting the ramp until the trolley started moving. I could then measure the height of the ramp and use this to work out the amount of friction for each height. If I had more scientific equipment I would also do an experiment into friction. I could keep the ramp at the same height and use the same trolley and only vary the surface of the ramp. I could use different degrees of sandpaper. I would need very precise timing equipment because there wouldn't be much difference in the times. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Forces and Motion section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Forces and Motion essays

  1. Investigation is to see how changing the height of a ramp affects the stopping ...

    I feel that my results are very good and accurate, as most of the points stick to the curve I drew on the graph, and no results strayed severely of the curve, with one falling slightly off it, but this is nothing major.

  2. To investigate how the angle of a slope affects the acceleration of a marble.

    My original results were not very accurate, especially drop height 30?, 40? and 70?. However, these were redone and now are greatly improved. 30? is still slightly anomalous. Despite this I feel my results are sufficiently reliable to support the conclusion that the theoretical data shows the acceleration down a slope where there is no energy lost from the object.

  1. How does the weight of an object affect the friction it has on the ...

    The mass of the block will be altered using masses of 50g, 100g, 1kg and so on. The same experiment will be repeated using three different surfaces. This will include 3 different types of sand paper. All the readings will be written down carefully, averages will be calculated and graphs will be plotted for clear analysis of the results.

  2. An investigation into the acceleration of a trolley up a ramp.

    Inclination of ramp- The inclination of the ramp is quite an important variable as a steep ramp will cause a slow acceleration and a shallow incline will have the opposite effect. Ramp surface- Friction is also a key concern as the trolley will move faster over a smooth surface than over a rough surface.

  1. An investigation into factors that effect the braking distance of a trolley

    Therefore, if mass and gravity stay the same, but height increases, the G.P.E. will be greater. * When an object is falling, its G.P.E. is converted into kinetic energy. * Kinetic Energy is the energy possessed by any object that is moving.

  2. Factors Affecting the Speed of a Car after Freewheeling down a Slope

    Improvements in my final experiment: ? The trolley will be started 150cm from the bottom of the runway, in order to make the movement of the trolley more accurate. ? The trolley will be released and the power pack started at the same time by myself, this is to avoid the delay in reaction time between pupils.

  1. Trolley Speed

    There is a general curve showing that as the height of the ramp increases, so does the speed of the trolley. Improvements/Changes: I believe that the experiment has worked successfully and that no changes or improvements need to be made.

  2. What is the relationship between mass of an object and its acceleration?

    reached the floor, so the cart was still accelerating when it passed through the light gate. 4. We set up the light gates and the data logger. 5. We took three sets of results for each mass. Modification: During the trial run we took one set of results for each

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work