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What Affects the Rate of Reaction Investigation.

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Introduction

Emil Kalaria What Affects the Rate of Reaction Investigation Plan I am going to be investigating how temperature affects the rate of reaction by experimenting with sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. The hydrochloric acid will be heated to different temperatures and a thermometer will be used to measure the temperature of the acid before I test it. This is to discern whether heat affects the rate of a chemical reaction. This means whether heat will speed up a reaction, slow it down, or whether it doesn't affect it at all. My aim is to see the effects of a change in temperature on the rate of a reaction. The reaction equation that will take place is: Sodium Thiosulphate + Hydrochloric Acid Na2S2O3 (aq) + 2HCl (aq) My one variable will be the temperature (while everything else will remain constant). The temperature will be varied using water bath with a test-tube, and a beaker half-filled with water, above a gauze and a blue flame on a Bunsen burner, as directly heating acid can be dangerous. I will only be heating the acid in the water-bath to the necessary temperature. ...read more.

Middle

The time it takes for the X to disappear is timed and recorded. The experiment is repeated using all the temperatures. The entire procedure is then repeated for more accurate results. Repeated results will be recorded and averages will be taken to improve the credibility of the findings, and to compare to my original prediction. The repeated results will help to give more average results, and will therefore give a good summary of the experiment. However if one set of results is entirely different to the other, a third experiment should be performed to replace the anomalous set of results. Safety - A pair of goggles will be worn during the heating part of the experiment in order to protect the eyes. When handling hot beakers and measuring cylinders a pair of tongs will be used. A gauze and heatproof mat will be used while heating to avoid any damage to the equipment. Also, the acid will be heated using a water-bath, as heating acid directly can be dangerous. A yellow flame will be used when the Bunsen is not in immediate use. Fair Test - In order for my findings to be valid the experiment must be a fair one. I will use the same person (Me) ...read more.

Conclusion

This shows that the equipment I used was efficient and the averages were very close to the original times, which shows that the tests were very successful. Any slightly out of line results could have been because of the temperature of the Hydrochloric acid may have slightly decreased by the time it was taken out of the water-bath to the time it was put in the beaker with the sodium, I was as quick as possible, so as not to let the temperature decrease. I also kept all of the methods of the experiment the same throughout all of our tests. Although I feel that my investigation was successful, there are always ways that the tests could be improved and expanded. Some of these are by using more accurate measurements, like measuring the temperature to a tenth of a oC, or by measuring the time taken by a the thousandth of a second instead of just a hundredth. Also, clean and accurate working apparatus that is in a good condition could be used for more precise results. I could expand this investigation by, as I mentioned earlier, using Acid of a Temperature under room temperature and above 600C to test whether the maximum collisions in the reaction is the same, or whether there is a different outcome. ...read more.

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