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# What affects the rate of reaction?

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Introduction

Rate of Reaction What affects the rate of reaction? Hypothesis To form a reaction the particles must collide in high speed. The faster the particles collide the more kinetic energy is produced. This produces a bigger reaction. There are five key variables that affect the rate of a reaction (in this case with a solid and a solution): * Change in temperature An increase in heat energy within the particles leads to more kinetic energy. Therefore there is more collision of particles and it increases the rate of the reaction. When we decrease the amount of heat energy, this will evidently slow down the reaction. For example we slow down the process of our food rotting by placing it in a fridge or a freezer. * Change in concentration The concentrations of acids are classed in molars, so 2m would quite a strong concentrated acid, 0.5m would be a very dilute weak acid and 1m would be in between the two. Also, the more concentrated the acid, the more particles it contains, so there is more of a chance for collisions. * Change of particle size Increasing the surface area of the particles would lead to more collision. We do this by making the particles smaller. For instance peeling a large potato would not take as long as peeling four small potatoes; this is because the smaller potatoes have a larger surface area for you to peel. * Pressure (for gases only) Increasing the pressure would bring particles closer together so there would be more of a chance for collision. * Catalyst A catalyst lowers the activation of energy required, consequently there being a faster reaction. ...read more.

Middle

2cc 3cc 4cc 5cc 6cc 7cc 8cc 9cc 10cc 0:01 0:01 0:01 0:01 Small marble chips room temperature 1molar 1st 2nd 3rd Average 1cc 0:04 0:14 0:08 0:09 2cc 0:09 0:18 0:14 0:14 3cc 0:15 0:22 0:19 0:19 4cc 0:19 0:25 0:23 0:22 5cc 0:23 0:28 0:31 0:27 6cc 0:28 0:30 0:34 0:31 7cc 0:32 0:33 0:38 0:34 8cc 0:37 0:38 0:41 0:39 9cc 0:40 0:40 0:43 0:41 10cc 0:49 0:42 0:46 0:46 Large marble chips room temperature 1molar 1st 2nd 3rd Average 1cc 0:35 0:32 0:48 0:38 2cc 1:00 0:54 0:58 0:57 3cc 1:05 1:03 1:09 1:06 4cc 1:20 1:17 1:19 1:19 5cc 1:32 1:28 1:31 1:30 6cc 1:40 1:41 1:40 1:40 7cc 1:49 1:50 1:51 1:50 8cc 1:58 1:56 2:01 1:58 9cc 2:12 2:07 2:10 2:10 10cc 2:15 2:11 2:21 2:16 Temperature Room temperature 1molar small marble chips 1st 2nd 3rd Average 1cc 0:04 0:14 0:08 0:09 2cc 0:09 0:18 0:14 0:14 3cc 0:15 0:22 0:19 0:19 4cc 0:19 0:25 0:23 0:22 5cc 0:23 0:28 0:31 0:27 6cc 0:28 0:30 0:34 0:31 7cc 0:32 0:33 0:38 0:34 8cc 0:37 0:38 0:41 0:39 9cc 0:40 0:40 0:43 0:41 10cc 0:49 0:42 0:46 0:46 30� 1molar small marble chips 1st 2nd 3rd Average 1cc 0:11 0:10 0:11 0:11 2cc 0:16 0:13 0:14 0:14 3cc 0:20 0:16 0:17 0:18 4cc 0:25 0:20 0:23 0:23 5cc 0:28 0:25 0:27 0:27 6cc 0:32 0:28 0:31 0:30 7cc 0:37 0:31 0:33 0:34 8cc 0:42 0:34 0:39 0:38 9cc 0:45 0:36 0:42 0:41 10cc 0:49 0:39 0:46 0:45 40� 1molar small marble chips 1st 2nd 3rd Average 1cc 0:08 0:09 0:08 0:8 2cc 0:15 0:17 0:13 0:15 3cc 0:20 0:19 0:16 0:18 4cc 0:21 0:23 0:20 0:21 5cc 0:27 0:25 0:24 0:26 6cc 0:29 0:28 0:27 ...read more.

Conclusion

I could have done 25�, 35�, 50� even going cooler than room temperature, such as 10� and 15�. I could have also used a variety of sizes of the calcium carbonate and more than just three concentrations of acid. I also would have carried out another type of experiment to back up the evidence I already have that the changes in temperature and concentration effect the rate of reaction. I would use sodium thio sulphate which is a liquid with hydrochloric acid. As the sodium thio sulphate reacts with the hydrochloric acid it becomes cloudy. So instead of measuring the carbon dioxide to confirm the rate of a reaction 1 would time how long it took for the hydrochloric acid to go cloudy. To do this I would mark a paper with a cross and place it under a beaker. I would pour hydrochloric acid into this beaker (Making sure I used the same amount of acid in each experiment). At this point I would still be able to see the cross through the clear acid. As I poured in the sodium thio sulphate (Also making sure I used the same measurement of this in each test) I would start the stop clock and time the reaction until I could not see the cross on the paper. I would repeat this with 0.5m, 1m and 2m of hydrochloric acid and maybe heat it the acid like in the other tests to support my other evidence that shows what effects the rate of reaction. I would have predicted the same things for these experiments too. All these changes and extra tests I have mentioned would have made my results more reliable, because there would be more accuracy involved. It would also give me a clearer idea on what affects the rate of reaction. ...read more.

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