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# What affects the rate ofreaction?

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Introduction

What affects the rate of reaction? The rate of a reaction tells us how quickly a chemical reaction happens. We cannot work out the rate of a reaction from its chemical equation; we have to do an experiment to find this out. In this experiment, we can find out how much of the reactant is used up in a certain time, or how much of the product is used up in a certain time. calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide Base (Solid) +Acid (Liquid) Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide (Gas) REACTANTS PRODUCTS Doing this reaction, I could investigate any of 3 different experiments; the concentration of the acid using water to dilute it, changing the temperature of the acid, or changing the surface area. Changing the surface area will not work, because the different weights of the powder and blocks of marble will make it impossible to measure accurately, therefore it wouldn't be a fair test. As a result of this, I have decided to investigate different concentrations of the acid, using water to dilute it. ...read more.

Middle

The more collisions that the particles have, the faster the reaction is. This is called the collision theory. Higher concentrated has a faster reaction occurring, as there are more particles in the same volume, leading to a greater chance of the particles colliding. In this experiment, the acid will react with the surface of the marble. As I am using crushed marble, the surface area (this is the outside layer of marble) is larger, therefore this will take less time than if I was using a block of marble. I found that there were no extreme odd results, but the 1st try didn't match as well as the 2nd and 3rd. On the average graph, a negative correlation is shown; the downward graph gets steeper and steeper. This tells me that the gas is released at a slower pace when less acid is used for the concentration experiment. This proves my prediction was correct this investigation. Problems I found whilst doing the experiment were that the gas was escaping before the bung could be put onto the flask. To solve this problem, there could have been 3 people at the ready, one of them could've said they were ready, and poured the marble ...read more.

Conclusion

So if the cold particles did come together, they need to collide to cause a reaction. As they have less energy, they might not bang together hard enough to cause a reaction, so they just bounce off. But at higher temperatures, the particles move faster, so they collide more often and cause a reaction to happen quicker. Eventually, all of the different temperatures produce the same reaction; it's just a matter of time! The Colder the acid, the longer it takes, the hotter the acid, the less time it takes. Catalysts lower the activation energy, making it easier for particles to react, so with a catalyst, a lot more particles have the energy to react. The results graph would also show a negative correlation, as the colder the solution is, the slower the reaction is. To do the temperature experiment, I would go about it the same way as I did with the concentration experiment, but heat up the 50ml of 1molar acid at 6 different temperatures. To make it a fair test, in addition to the fair test rules for the concentration test, for the temperature test I am going to keep the acid at 50ml of 1molar strength, and keep the base (marble) crushed and only 1g used. ...read more.

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