• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

What affects the size of craters formed by falling objects?

Extracts from this document...


What affects the size of craters formed by falling objects? Research A meteor is a small body that orbits around the sun. They sometimes enter the earth's atmosphere and burn up, due to the friction between the body and atmosphere and hits the earths surface. When they hit the earth's surface they are called meteorites. In Arizona, USA, a crater was formed by a large meteorite; scientists estimate it hit the earths about 500.000 years ago. A meteorite could also explain the extinction of the dinosaurs, when it hit the Gulf of Mexico. Some meteorites have dense lumps of iron and nickel, which show marks of slow cooling; these may have come from the violent history of our solar system. Hypothesis Energy is never created or destroyed; it is just transferred from one form to another. This is the principle of the conservation of energy. ...read more.


When I drop the golf ball I wouldn't have to throw the golf ball in to the sand as the velocity would not be constant, and this could not be controlled, as I would not be able to drop it with the same force each time. By just releasing the golf ball from my hand at the correct height would mean that the velocity of the golf ball in each tests would be the same. I think as I double the input, the output will also double, this is a quantitative prediction, so as I double the height I drop the golf ball from, the Gravitational potential energy (g.p.e), should also double. The force of impact is equal to the mass of an object multiplied by its acceleration. Different materials have different masses, which will affect the size of the crater. If the mass is increased, but the gravitational force and height above the sand stay the same, the gravitational potential energy will increase, and also the kinetic energy of the impact will increase too. ...read more.


On the Earth this is about 10N/Kg. The height must be vertical height for this formula to work. I will then increase the crater made and compare it with other heights, by doing this I predict that as the height increases so will the gravitational potential energy. By dropping the golf ball from the same angle but at a higher distance it will create a larger crater because the force of gravity makes the object increase its speed with time. The more I increase the height the more speed and velocity the object gains, meaning that the crater will be larger as I increase the height. The higher the drop height, the greater the velocity of the golf ball, so a larger crater will be made and the ejected sand will spread out farther. When the golf ball hits the sand some of the energy is transferred to heat energy, due to friction. Also during the impact, the kinetic energy is transferred to the surface, moving the particles sand around. When the object hits the sand Mark Woof ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Forces and Motion section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Forces and Motion essays

  1. Investigate the size of craters in sand when a marble is dropped into the ...

    I also changed the amount of times I will do the experiment. I have decided to repeat it three times. The change in heights I made to my method improved the results I got for my real practical. My results where much better than my preliminary results and I was able to produce a much better graph because of this.

  2. Investigating Impact Craters

    Sand Ordinary merchant's sand was finally chosen as the impact material, it was easy to level and held its shape well. Other factors, such as the height dropped, and the diameters of the balls, were simply determined by the equipment available in the lab.

  1. Investigate a factor that might affect the size of a crater made by a ...

    Therefore, with regards to the size of a crater made by a falling object, it is predicted that if the object has enough falling distance in order to reach it's terminal (maximum and constant) velocity then the size of the crater made by that fall would not be larger even

  2. To investigate the height dropped from a crater and the affect in the size ...

    Four repeat readings were taken for each height to obtain an accurate average to be used for the graph. As shown in the preliminary work, a large range of heights is required to get a satisfactory range of results. The calibrating stick was marked in cm and mm to obtain accurate results.

  1. investigate the size of craters in sand when a marble is dropped

    19.63 After the results that I got from my preliminary results I decided to change a few things in my original method. First of all I changed the height from which I am dropping the marble. The reason for this is that the best results came within 10-160cms.

  2. How does the drop height of a small and a large marble affect the ...

    Prediction: It is common sense that the higher an item is dropped the more force it will exert when it lands or collides with another object. We can also see this when we bounce a ball from a height of 1 meter it will bounce higher than that of if it was dropped from 0.50 meter.

  1. Investigating the amazingness of theBouncing Ball!

    the height reached by the ball, H0 being the initial height the ball was dropped at, b being the number of bounces and ? being the decay constant. Since the height is proportional to the number of bounces, taking logs to the base e In H = in H0 -

  2. How does the temperature of a squash ball affects the impact time of the ...

    This result can be then used as a assumption value for other suggestion. However, it was suggested that the upper foil may obstruct the falling speed of the ball. This leads to an experimental error of the results. Moreover after the ball rebounds and leaves the upper foil, the foil

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work