• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

What are the ethical and moral issues surrounding cigarette smoking?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

What are the ethical and moral issues surrounding cigarette smoking? Smokers enjoy the effects of nicotine in cigarettes, which is a tranquilliser relaxing the muscles and calming anxious people under stress. Nicotine suppresses appetite helping weight loss by causing food to be incompletely digestedC but enhances concentration, being a stimulant16 Nicotine takes 7 seconds to be absorbed into the blood stream and reach the brain and is proven to be addictive.11 Nicotine products, such as patches and gum43 are expensive and not incentives to stop smoking and "should be free"32. Nicotine stimulates the heart causing it to pump harder and faster increasing blood pressure and putting unnecessary strain on the heart, leading to heart attacks.15 Smoking causes lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, emphysema and heart diseaseG. One cigarette contains enough nicotine to kill a man if injected directly into the blood stream14. Smokers are reluctant to give up smoking as this "causes more unhappiness"22, suffering and stress27 even though stopping causes a "better sense of taste and smell" and the "risk of heart attack halved"A. By stopping, smokers believe it will cause irritability, insomnia weight increase. Smokers report their cough worsening when they cease smoking because mucus produced by the airways is not so easily removed without the irritant effect of smoke.34 Tar is a mixture of chemicals (containing formaldehyde, arsenic and cyanide). ...read more.

Middle

which plays a major part in allergic responses.24 From one case in 1975 where a patient working in a smoking area, "became so tight with wheezing and asthma that she could not get her breath" for which there was no medical evidence, linked 34 million other cases.26 A study of children in Aberdeen showed that asthmatic cases had doubled between 1972 - 1988 but during the same time period the number of smokers dropped from 52% to 33%24 Smoking mothers Pregnant women who smoke increase their risk of miscarriage I and 3,800 low birth weight babies are born each year6, due to smoking mothers. There is a 50% increased chance of a baby developing respiratory disease11, reduced lung function4 and chest infections I in later life, due to nicotine passing through the umbilical chord. Nicotine causes premature birth11 and enters the mother's milk. Babies born to smoking families absorb nicotine causing the babies' heart to beat faster and be prone to allergies.10 Children suffer from, middle ear disease, asthma attacks, sore throats and coughing D. Smoking kills 200 babies from cot deaths and 44 from bronchitis5. However, cot deaths occur in non-smoking families.20 Children whose parents smoke are more likely to become smokers themselves D. ...read more.

Conclusion

Out of every 100 cigarettes sold world wide, the Governments sell 55, and tax half of the remaining 45 cigarettes. Governments, "never encourage the complete ban of cigarette consumption due to the profit they make".18 Addiction. Smokers are aware of the damages they cause to themselves but are treated by the NHS for "self inflicted illnesses". "You cannot not treat smokers who are suffering from lung cancer just because they brought it upon themselves" otherwise you would not "treat a rugby players broken leg because they brought it upon themselves by playing a dangerous game".23 Smokers cost the NHS and are subsidised by tax revenues.23 but smokers contribute to the NHS and the Government revenue, from which the NHS is financed.23 Removing freedoms, such as choosing to smoke violates human rights and would be 'the beginning of the erosion of all liberties'19. Smokers should "not be forced to be the same as non smokers"19 as 'they do not have the right to dictate the policy on smoking'29 People are 'free to decide what to buy and have responsibility for their buying decisions'27 Terence Conran' stated "adults should have the right to do what they wish as long as it doesn't upset reasonable people or break the law"37 Word count = 1,656 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Humans as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Humans as Organisms essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Advantages and Disadvatages of Designer Babies

    3 star(s)

    That might seem scary to us. Nevertheless, will it seem scary to our children? This procedure is very expensive, and very gruelling on the parents involved. It's hard to imagine anyone willingly going through it for fun. (Baring in mind all the cost it involves)

  2. Should abortion be illegal?

    Once again, they want to say that abortion is a sin, a crime and a murder. Before having abortion, women should judge the disadvantages and consequences of abortion, think about the killings, think about the sorrows and think about the pain that not only suffered the babies but the women themselves.

  1. Factors Affecting the Development of Coronary Heart Disease.

    But by losing even as few as 10 to 20 pounds, you can lower your heart disease risk. What other factors contribute to heart disease risk? * Individual response to stress may be a contributing factor. Some scientists have noted a relationship between coronary heart disease risk and stress in a person's life, their health behaviours and socio-economic status.

  2. This document is a case study, analyzing and discussing the topic question: Is it ...

    procedure; or if someone close to them in the hospital has an open wound;, or consequently a member of staff who is not following the hand washing schemes passes it to another patient. Colonized patients often have a 'reservoir' of MRSA that could fuel this spread as the MRSA infection

  1. The Biological and Psychological Impact of Smoking Cigarettes

    The final component is nicotine. Nicotine causes the blood vessels to narrow. This increases the blood pressure, which is a major risk factor for stroke. It also increases the build up of plaque deposits along the inside walls of the arteries or blood vessels.

  2. Premature Babies

    At 7 weeks, the embryo is about 10mm long from the head to the bottom. The face is slowly forming, the eyes are more obvious and has some color in them. It has got a mouth and a tongue. The feet and hands are beginning to form, with ridges where the fingers and toes will be.

  1. Research into smoking essay

    ?The result is that one cigarette leads to another and so on.? (4) Though the states have strict norms to warn the people about the banes of smoking, the truth remains that people still buys the cigarettes and the cigarette industries remain rollicking.

  2. Biology smoking coursework. Should smoking be banned in public places?

    Tobacco is tended to be smoked to obtain nicotine, principally to relive symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. nicotine has very serious adverse effects on people`s health. Nicotine increases the metabolic rate and suppress appetite, resulting in a lower average body weight.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work