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What are the properties and structure of Diamond.

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Diamond Diamond comes from the Greek word adamao, which was used to describe the hardest substance known. Diamonds form about 100 miles (161 km) below the Earth's surface, in the molten rock of the Earth's mantle, which provides the right amounts of pressure and heat to transform carbon into a diamond. In order for a diamond to be created, carbon must be placed under at least 435,000 pounds per square inch of pressure at a temperature of at least 400�C. If conditions drop below either of these two points, graphite will be created. Because of this, most diamonds that we see today were formed millions or even billions of years ago. Powerful magma eruptions brought the diamonds to the surface, creating kimberlite pipes. The magma inside the kimberlite pipes acts like an elevator, pushing the diamonds and other rocks and minerals through the mantle and crust in just a few hours. These eruptions were short, but many times more powerful than volcanic eruptions that happen today. The magma then cooled inside these kimberlite pipes, leaving behind narrow veins of kimberlite rock that contain diamonds. ...read more.


Diamonds have been known to be yellow, orange, brown, and black. It can also be red, blue, green, and purple, but this is extremely rare. As mentioned before, diamonds are the crystallized form of carbon created under extreme heat and pressure. It's this same process that makes diamonds the hardest mineral we know of. A diamond is given 10 on the Mohs Hardness Scale and therefore is the hardest substance known that we know of. It can be anywhere from 10 to hundreds of times harder than a mineral ranked 9 on the Mohs scale, such as corundum. It is the molecular structure of diamonds that makes them so hard. Diamonds are made of carbon atoms linked together in a lattice structure. Each carbon atom shares electrons with four other carbon atoms, forming a tetrahedral unit which is perfectly symmetrical. This tetrahedral bonding of five carbons forms an incredibly strong molecule. Any breakdown of the structure involves the breaking of strong covalent bonds and this gives diamonds both chemical stability and extreme strength. Graphite, another form of carbon, isn't as strong as diamond because the carbon atoms in graphite link together in hexagonal rings, where each atom is only linked to one other atom. ...read more.


- It is imbedded in another material and used as a tool due to its strength and resistance to scratching. As well as strength, diamond also has extraordinary thermal conductivity, a low-friction surface, and is transparent. Diamond can also be made by a process called High Pressure High Temperature synthesis (HPHT). This is where graphite is put into a huge hydraulic press at high temperatures and pressures, and with the addition of a metallic catalyst, and is converted to diamond over a period of a few hours. The diamond crystals that are produced by this method are typically a few mm in size, which are too flawed for use as gemstones, but are extremely useful as cutting tools etc. Another use of diamonds are of course jewels in expensive jewellery etc as diamonds are the most popular of all precious gems and so there is extremely high demand for them. Diamonds go through a very long refining process from the time they are pulled from the ground to when you see them in the jewellery store. However, if imperfections (or flaws) in the diamond are spotted undetectable under a magnifying lens then the value of the diamond lowers greatly. Iden Ranapour 1 ...read more.

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