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What concentration of copper (II) sulphate brings full denaturation of egg albumen.

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Introduction

Biology Practical Examination: Planning Exercise Introduction This investigation is to find out what the concentration is of copper (II) sulphate that brings full denaturation of egg albumen. I can find this out by decreasing the concentration of CuSO4 using the serial dilution method to up the diluted state that no longer gets fully denatured. Background Information Egg albumen is a protein and can also be denatured by heat, pH and mechanical methods, so to make this experiment fair, I need to try and make sure that these factors don't affect the experiment. Denaturation of a protein is the breaking of bonds that hold the protein molecules together; in this case CuSO4 is being used to break the bonds. The bonds that are being broken and changed are disulphide and hydrogen bonds. The R groups on the amino acids in the proteins are responsible for the 3D shapes of the protein molecules and their functions, and they are what get changed when the protein is denatured, so when denatured, it ceases to function properly. ...read more.

Middle

Another way I could carry out this experiment is by using a colorimeter. This piece of equipment measures the light absorbency of the solution being tested, or the transmission of the light through the solution to the metre on the other side. This is a good piece of equipment to use for this experiment, because it would give me accurate numerical readings, which, unlike the previous possible method, could enable me to plot a graph when analysing the results. For example, if I were testing water in the colorimeter, I would get readings of 0% absorption and 100% transmission. Equipment Graduated pipette and filler 10 test tubes 2 test tube holders 10 curvettes Colorimeter A supply of 0.1 mol dm�� copper (II) sulphate solution A supply of egg albumen Distilled water Precautions - Health and Safety * Wear safety glasses * Handle all chemicals with care * Don't run in laboratory * Wash hands before and after handling albumen and chemicals * Don't put anything breakable, i.e. ...read more.

Conclusion

This will be at the first point where the percentage transmission reaches zero, because no light would be able to get through. Precise and reliable results In order to produce precise results, I am using the best equipment available to me. Rather than, for example, using a measuring cylinder to measure out the quantities of substances used, I am using a pipette. This piece of equipment is a lot more accurate, because it is a lot easier to read, and the pipette filler is calibrated, so is very accurate. I will also try to get my results to be as reliable as possible. To do this, I am repeating my experiment at least three times. I will also compare my final results against specimen data, and see if they match or are close. Fair testing To keep this experiment as fair as I can, I will: * Keep the experiment at room temperature (around 21�C) * Make sure that I measure out the same amount of albumen in each curvette, and at the end there is the same amount of solution in all curvettes. ...read more.

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