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What considerations led Samuel Greg to set up a Cotton Spinning Mill at Styal in 1784?

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What Considerations led Samuel Greg to set up a Cotton Spinning Mill at Styal in 1784? Samuel Greg was born in Ireland in 1758, the son of a Belfast merchant and a ship owner. At the age of ten he was adopted by his childless uncles, Robert and Nathaniel Hyde who owned a cotton and linen (fustian) factory in Manchester. He was well educated and wanted to make a fortune. At the age of 24, Samuel Greg inherited �22,000 from his uncle. He saw the potential of making money out of cotton and he knew the business well. In 1784 Samuel Greg chose the site of Styal Mill because it was close to Manchester which was the centre of the cloth trade. Samuel Greg decided to build a cotton mill because everything needed to create a mill was right to make a good business investment and profit. From the map below we can see that Styal mill is sited on the River Bollin from which the mill could generate power to make machines. One consideration that led Samuel Greg to build a mill at Styal was that it was in Manchester which was the centre of cloth trade. Sketch Map of the North-West of England to show the position of Styal Samuel Greg was a very rich man. ...read more.


The water came along the head race, turned and escaped back to the river through the tail race that went through a tunnel in the mill. A consideration that led Samuel Greg to build a mill at Styal was because of the good source of water from the River Bollin. Sketch plan to show the flow of water powering the mill The first Mill had its water frame spinning machines powered by an over-shot wheel There was an increasing amount of cotton imported into Britain because of the new machinery. The import of raw cotton had risen from 4 million pounds weight to 31 million pounds in just twenty years. More and more people wanted cotton clothes so this made it a very profitable business. In the 18th century value of exported cotton rose from �23,253 to �540, 6501 so Samuel Greg knew that it was a profitable business. Arkwright had invented a water powered spinning frame machine. This machine increased the speed of production of cotton so more could be made each day than average. It made as much cotton thread a day as forty spinners could make by hand. This saved labour costs and it was extremely efficient. By using this machine Samuel Greg would produce a very high profit although it was illegal to use in before 1785. ...read more.


Canal transport was the cheapest at 10s 6d a tonne compared with transport on the river Mersey which was 12s a tonne or by carriage which was 40s a tonne. Thomas Tonge, who lived in the village of Styal when he was a boy, sent back memories from the USA of carting the cotton along the toll road. A consideration that led Samuel Greg to build a mill at Styal was that it was cheap to transport his goods. One problem which Samuel Greg encountered was that there was a lack of work force in the area because it was in the country. Greg found it easy to obtain cheap labour by using pauper children from the workhouse. At first he housed them in local farm houses but then in 1790 he opened the apprentice house, the mill where up to 90 children were to live. He also started to build Styal village as a factory colony to house his workers. Styal had several advantages for the building of a cotton mill. The rover Bollin had a fall of water enough to provide water to power the wheel. The out crop of Sandifield provided building material for good foundation and there was a field for an apprentice house where brick makers could make bricks to build a mill and then later the village of Styal. First building where the wheel is today Sarah Chung 10M 1 ...read more.

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