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"What effect does changing the temperature have on the rate of reaction?"

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Introduction

"What effect does changing the temperature have on the rate of reaction?" Aim: I am going to produce a piece of coursework investigating the rates of reaction, and the effect different changes have on them. I have chosen to investigate the effects temperature has on a reaction. This is because it is the most practical thing to experiment. and I am already familiar with the chemicals hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate. Fair test: In order for my findings to be as accurate as possible the experiment must be fair. I will use the same stop watch each time for judging when the "X" has disappeared. I will make sure that the measuring cylinders for the hydrochloric acid and the sodium thiosulphate will not be mixed up. The amount of hydrochloric acid will be fixed at 5cm3, the sodium thiosulphate at 10cm3 and the distilled water at 40cm3 each time. All these precautions will make my final results more reliable. Safety: A pair of goggles will be worn whilst handling the chemicals to avoid damage to the eyes. ...read more.

Middle

This beaker should have a piece of paper with an "X" on the bottom of it. When the chemicals are all at the required heat they are poured into the same beaker as the hydrochloric acid. The stopwatch is then started and the measurements are taken. The entire procedure is then repeated three times for each temperature. Because I will repeat the experiment three times this means I will find the mean average to improve the credibility of the findings. The repeat results will help to get rid of any unusual results to make the accurate summary. However if one set of results is entirely different to another, a fourth experiment will be performed. Preliminary Experiment: I decided which temperatures to use during my preliminary series of experiments: 1 These are the measurements I used: 2 2.5cm3 hydrochloric acid 3 5cm3 sodium thiosulphate 4 20cm3 distilled water 5 20-70 degrees Celsius temperature (all these going up in steps of 10) my preliminary work showed that any temperature under 20 degrees Celsius reacted too slowly and 80 to 90 degrees Celsius reacted too quickly to be worth including in my final results. ...read more.

Conclusion

I made my averages using a scientific calculator and I used a pipette to measure the chemicals correctly. I tried to eliminate any odd results by repeating the experiment 3 times for each temperature. My method was very easy to follow. The only thing that I would possibly change would be my way in which to measure the cloudiness of the solution. This may have been achieved using a light metre to test how light was showing through the bottom of the glass beaker. I think that my data is very reliable. It is reliable enough to support my conclusion, as there are very few anomalies. I could have provided more evidence by expanding my experiments and testing a larger amount of variables. I have noticed that my result at 20 degrees is not as accurate as it could be because it is furthest away from that line of best fit. I studied my results table and realised that the was a big difference between the highest and lowest of the three recordings. The difference was 7.07 secs. This could have been improved by going back and retesting and taking down more results. ...read more.

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