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What effect does Temperature have on the enzyme Catalase?

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Introduction

What effect does Temperature have on the enzyme Catalase? Enzymes are proteins and are used in the digestion system to break down food molecules, they are biological catalysts that speed up reactions and contain amino acids. A catalyst is a chemical substance, which speeds up a reaction but does not get used up during it. One enzyme molecule may be used several times over. An enzyme has an active site, which has a unique shape into which only a substrate of the exact same unique shape can fit, just as a key fits into a lock. Temperature is important in all reactions. As the temperature rises, so does the rate of reaction. This is because heat energy causes collisions between the enzyme and the substrate. However enzymes can be denatured at certain conditions. These conditions are high temperatures and extreme levels of pH. The bonds that hold enzymes together are quite weak and are therefore broken by these conditions. When these bonds are broken the enzyme, along with the active site, is broken, thus deactivating the enzyme. This is known as a denatured enzyme. ...read more.

Middle

with the Hydrogen Peroxide * Used a test tube rack * Made sure I had enough working area * Concentrated at all times Apparatus * Water baths * Ice baths * Test tubes/boiling tubes * Measuring Cylinder * Hydrogen Peroxide * Potato * Stopwatch * Corkborer * Plastic Tub Method * Cut a piece of potato using a Corkborer * Put the piece of potato into a tube * Measure out a certain amount of Hydrogen Peroxide and put it in the test tube * Place the stopper on the tube and place the measuring tube into a tub of water * Collect gas in the measuring tube and time how long it takes to collect a certain amount of gas Measurements: 3 small cylinders of ready cut potato 15ml of Hydrochloric Acid 5ml of oxygen collected each time The temperatures I will be using are (in degrees Celsius): 5, 45, 50, 70 My results Temperature(0c) Test 1 (mins) Test 2 Test 3 Average 5 4 4:12 4:05 4.06 45 3:49 3:30 3:36 3.38 50 4:23 4:44 4:33 4.33 70 6:02 6:17 6:14 6.11 My graph (next page) ...read more.

Conclusion

The enzymes denature at about 60oc because the weak bonds, which hold the molecule into the specific shape for one substrate, are broken. The increase in collisions at higher temperatures is great enough to permanently change the shape of the active site. The enzyme is said to be denatured because it can no longer form an enzyme substrate complex as its active site has been permanently changed. There was very little activity in the ice bath because there were hardly any collisions between the molecules. Evaluation: In my method I had several problems. For example when I put the potato in the hydrogen peroxide the reaction instantly started, but I still needed to put the stopper on the test tube, this may have caused odd results. Also the measuring tube was hard to keep up and hard to keep full of water. Several times it slipped and the experiment had to be started over again. I think all of my results were wrong especially when looking at them on a graph. These may be wrong because of the above reasons, which I have just explained. I could have improved my method by somehow starting the reaction off after the stopper was placed on the test tube. This would have stopped the oxygen from being released and my results would have definitely been accurate. ...read more.

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