• Join over 1.2 million students every month
• Accelerate your learning by 29%
• Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
1. 1
1
2. 2
2
3. 3
3
4. 4
4
5. 5
5

# What effects the period of a pendulum?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

## Alun Roberts

Physics Practical

What effects the period of a pendulum?

## Aim

My aim is to investigate what effects the period of a pendulum.

## The variables in this experiment are:

1. The length of the pendulum.
2. The size of the pendulum’s swing or displacement.
3. The mass of the pendulum.
4. The shape and air resistance of the pendulum.

## Scientific Explanation

As the pendulum swings from its fixed point it contains energy and as it swings it goes through energy transfers. At the top of its swing the pendulum is for a moment still or stationary, at that point it has its maximum gravitational potential energy and has no kinetic energy. When the pendulum falls from the top of its swing its speed increases and is at it’s most at the bottom of the swing. Here it has its most kinetic energy and its least potential energy, as the pendulum rises to the top of its swing the speed decreases until it is stationary at the top again. Here it has no kinetic energy but has its most gravitational potential energy again. As the pendulum

Middle

22.37

58

25

10

30.75

1. Changing the length of the pendulum.
1. Changing the size of the swing [displacement]
 Length [cm] Mass [g] Displacement [cm] Time for 20 swings [s] 58 25 10 30.94 58 25 30 31.33
1. Changing the air resistance of the pendulum.

This does have a small effect on the pendulum’s time per swing, however this would be very hard to study without using very large pendulums and very accurate timing equipment. Therefore I will not be testing air resistance in this

experiment.

After studying my results from the pre-test I have decided to test the length of the pendulum and not the mass or the size of the swing. I have chosen to do this as this has the greatest affect on the pendulum’s period. In my main experiment to keep the test fair I will be keeping the

Conclusion

To improve my experiment I feel that it would prove worthwhile to find a method to make the pendulum perfectly round to a correct size so that its diameter and radius can be found. This would make the measuring more accurate as we would know exactly where the centre of the pendulum is. Also the string can stretch under the weight of the pendulum slightly so I feel to improve this we could use a more rigid type of string that doesn’t stretch at all.

To extend the investigation I could test the air resistance to prove that this does have an effect on the time per swing. To do this I would have to use much longer string and very big pendulums to easily notice a variation in the results.

Another way of extending the investigation would be instead of having the pendulum swinging I could have it attached to an elastic cord so that it would spring up and down vertically. I would test how the length of the cord and the distance the cord is stretched before release affects the amount of time it takes for the pendulum to rise and fall above the arm it is attached to.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Forces and Motion section.

## Found what you're looking for?

• Start learning 29% faster today
• 150,000+ documents available
• Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
• Join over 1.2 million students every month
• Accelerate your learning by 29%
• Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

# Related GCSE Forces and Motion essays

1. ## Investigating how the Length of a Pendulum affects its Period

3 star(s)

The pendulum must be set up away from other people as it could hit them and hurt them. Also secure the stand with some G- clamps to make sure it doesn't fall on you or anybody else. My prediction is that as you increase the length of the string the period too will go up.

2. ## Additional Science - What affects the period of a pendulum?

3 star(s)

The independent variable in this preliminary is the length of the string and the control variables are the size of the ball, material of the ball, the height from where the ball bearing is dropped from and the person in charge of the stopwatch.

1. ## Factors that affect the period of a pendulum

Iron 1.01 1.02 1.01 - 1.01-1.02 1.01 Brass 1.06 1.16 1.16 - 1.06-1.16 1.13 Lead 1.10 1.21 1.14 1.21 1.10-1.21 1.17 Copper 1.23 1.16 1.20 1.23 1.16-1.23 1.21 According to this graph, there is a positive correlation between the type of bob used and period.

2. ## Investigate the effects of an asteroid impact on Earth through a small-scale simulation.

reaches terminal velocity due to the force of gravity acting on it. This is why the ball shall have a greater velocity the higher it is dropped from, because it has more time to accelerate. The formula for calculating velocity is: Velocity = V (20 x Height)

1. ## The determination of the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the earth, ...

Plot a graph of period� vs length. Error Analysis The equation used in relation to this investigation is: T� = 4?� L g In order to calculate the error that the calculated value of g will have, I need to reassess the error of all the apparatus.

2. ## FACTORS AFECTING SIMPLE PENDULUM`S PERIOD

My variable in x-axis is length (independent variable) and the sensitivity of the meter was �0.05 cm so now we can draw the error bar for length so the length of error bar is 0.1 cm. My variable in y-axis is period and its uncertainty has to do with two factors.

1. ## science pendulum experiment

Preliminary Results Length of string (cm) Time to swing once (s) 10 0.49 20 0.99 40 1.22 Angle of release from vertical (degrees) Time to swing once (s) 10 0.79 20 0.83 40 0.91 The preliminary results show that there is more of a contrast in results in between different lengths compared to different angles.

2. ## Strength of a string practical investigation

string, as adding 200g masses it would take too long for the string to break (as it takes time to add the 200g mass each time) and as I am allocated two hour to conduct my experiment, then I would not be able to collect all my results that I

• Over 160,000 pieces
of student written work
• Annotated by
experienced teachers
• Ideas and feedback to